Autism Spectrum Disorders: Early Detection, Intervention, Education, and Psychopharmacological Management

  title={Autism Spectrum Disorders: Early Detection, Intervention, Education, and Psychopharmacological Management},
  author={Susan E. Bryson and Sally J. Rogers and Eric Fombonne},
  journal={The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry},
  pages={506 - 516}
Our understanding and treatment of children with autism have changed dramatically since Leo Kanner first formally documented the disorder in 1943. With reference to the historical context, this paper reviews recent research addressing 4 major issues: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management of children with autism and related (autistic) spectrum disorders (hereafter, “autism”). We conclude from our review of the evidence that, in the absence of additional… 

Effect of Early Intervention in Autism : A Case Study

There was significant improvement in the areas of relating to people, listening response, intellectual response, adaptation to change and visual response and reduction in body use, object use and level of activity in Master ‘V’ aged 37 months.

L'autisme - les nouveaux programmes thérapeutiques

Vis-à-Vis is presented, an effective socio-emotional enrichment tool for face and emotion recognition training in school-age autistic children, and has been shown to be effective with children as young as 18 months.

Early assessment and diagnosis of children

This chapter will review the evidence for ASD, the epidemiology and prevalence of these disorders and consider (using the framework of the National Autism Plan for Children) a range of assessment and diagnostic procedures including the use of the best estimate clinical diagnosis for clinical and research practice.

Evidence-Based Comprehensive Treatments for Early Autism

  • S. RogersL. Vismara
  • Psychology
    Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology : the official journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53
  • 2008
The empirical studies of comprehensive treatments for young children with autism published since 1998 were reviewed and found that most studies were either Type 2 or 3 in terms of their methodological rigor based on Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria.

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Pharmacotherapy for Challenging Behaviors

Effectiveness of these treatments based on the available research literature are reviewed, and types of drugs used, targets for intervention, the future of combined behavior and drug interventions, and the measurement of side effects are discussed.

Development of a scale for identifying autism spectrum disorder during early childhood

A new scale for identifying ASD during infancy and early childhood by mapping empirically supported skill behaviors and excess behaviors can be used for early identification of ASD in the Indian population, though further validation with large population is required.

The early detection of autism in clinical practice.

This paper elaborate on this two-stage strategy, with a particular focus on its implementation, aimed at identifying infants/toddlers at high risk for autism and early detection of ASDs(hereafter autism).

Differentiating autism spectrum disorder from other developmental delays in the first two years of life.

Advances in the identification of the early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have occurred despite the heterogeneity of the disorder and its variable onset and presentation. Using various

[Early detection of autism spectrum disorders: emerging symptoms and biomarkers].

Social Stories™ to improve social skills in children with autism spectrum disorder

The need for further rigorous research is underscored and some outstanding questions regarding maintenance and generalization of the benefits of Social Stories™ are highlighted.



Genetics of childhood disorders: XLIV. autism, part 3: psychopharmacology of autism.

  • C. McDougleD. Posey
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • 2002
The pharmacological management of hyperactivity and impaired attention has proven particularly challenging and lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and gabapentin, have not been reported in well-defined groups of autistic subjects.

Empirically supported comprehensive treatments for young children with autism.

  • S. Rogers
  • Psychology
    Journal of clinical child psychology
  • 1998
The criteria for empirically supported treatments, as described by Lonigan, Elbert, and Johnson (this issue), were applied to reports of eight treatment efficacy studies published in peer-reviewed journals.

Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism

This approach requires a dual process: 1) routine developmental surveillance and screening specifically for autism to be performed on all children to first identify those atrisk for any type of atypical development, and to identify those specifically at risk for autism.

Intensive Behavioral/Psychoeducational Treatments for Autism: Research Needs and Future Directions

  • L. Schreibman
  • Psychology
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 2000
This paper describes several features important in the success of this model and presents remaining issues to be addressed for improving treatment effectiveness.

Pharmacotherapy for Hyperactivity in Children with Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders

We reviewed pharmacological treatments used in children with autism and PDD-NOS who present with hyperactive symptoms. Some 41 studies were identified from the following drug categories:

Research on Screening and Diagnosis in Autism: A Work in Progress

Some promising areas for research identified in the search for the ultimate diagnostic indicator, for example, genetic, metabolic, immunologic, neurologic, that will distinguish autism unequivocally from other developmental disabilities are highlighted.

Role of altered brain serotonin mechanisms in autism

  • D. Chugani
  • Psychology, Biology
    Molecular Psychiatry
  • 2002
The data suggest that humans undergo a period of high brain serotonin synthesis capacity during childhood, and that this developmental process is disrupted in autistic children with some brain regions more severely impacted.

Efficacy of Methylphenidate Among Children with Autism and Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Results suggest that methylphenidate can be efficacious for children with autism and ADHD symptoms, however, this group of children seems to be particularly susceptible to adverse side effects.

Practitioner review: psychological and educational treatments for autism.

  • P. Howlin
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 1998
It is suggested that many so called "challenging" behaviours result from the child's fundamental difficulties in communication and social understanding, or from the ritualistic and obsessional tendencies that are also characteristic of autism.

Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Partial table of contents: DIAGNOSIS AND CLASSIFICATION Rett's Syndrome: A Pervasive Developmental Disorder (R. Van Acker) DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOR Social Development in Autism (F. Volkmar et al.)