Autism: The role of cholesterol in treatment

@article{Aneja2008AutismTR,
  title={Autism: The role of cholesterol in treatment},
  author={Alka Aneja and Elaine Tierney},
  journal={International Review of Psychiatry},
  year={2008},
  volume={20},
  pages={165 - 170}
}
Cholesterol is essential for neuroactive steroid production, growth of myelin membranes, and normal embryonic and fetal development. It also modulates the oxytocin receptor, ligand activity and G-protein coupling of the serotonin-1A receptor. A deficit of cholesterol may perturb these biological mechanisms and thereby contribute to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as observed in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) and some subjects with ASDs in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE). A… Expand
Cholesterol in autism spectrum disorders
TLDR
Data is provided of the relevance of cholesterol dyshomeostasis in autism spectrum disorders and how determining biochemical parameters in body fluids should help to provide new therapeutic approaches in some cases of autism. Expand
Dysregulation of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor–Cholesterol Crosstalk in Autism Spectrum Disorder
TLDR
It is explored in this review the possibility that the dysregulation of nicotinic receptor-cholesterol crosstalk plays a role in some of the neurological alterations observed in ASD. Expand
The role of cholesterol metabolism and various steroid abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: A hypothesis paper
TLDR
It is posited that there may be links between cholesterol metabolism and findings of steroid abnormalities of various kinds in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and further research investigating these potential links is warranted to further understand the biological mechanisms underlying ASD. Expand
Altered Brain Cholesterol/Isoprenoid Metabolism in a Rat Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders
TLDR
VPA-treated rats present autistic-like symptoms, they show changes in cholesterol/isoprenoid homeostasis in some brain areas, a decreased number of oligodendrocytes and impaired myelination in the hippocampus, and this data suggest a relation between brain cholesterol/ isoprenoidsHomeostasis and ASDs. Expand
Sterol and lipid analyses identifies hypolipidemia and apolipoprotein disorders in autism associated with adaptive functioning deficits
TLDR
Reduced synthesis of cholesterol in families with ≥2 children with ASD participating with the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) is identified, as well as reduced amounts of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and ApoB (A poB), which could lead to personalized treatment approaches. Expand
Sterol metabolism disorders and neurodevelopment-an update.
TLDR
This article reviews sterol synthesis disorders in the pre- and post-squalene pathway highlighting neurodevelopmental aspects that underlie the clinical presentations and course of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS), mevalonic aciduria (MVA) or the milder version hyper-immunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS). Expand
Hypothesis: The Role of Sterols in Autism Spectrum Disorder
TLDR
Impaired sonic hedgehog patterning, alterations in membrane lipid rafts leading to abnormal synaptic plasticity, and impaired neurosteroid synthesis are discussed and potential therapeutic agents include the development of neuroactive steroid-based agents and enzyme-specific drugs. Expand
Lipid Signalling in the Pathology of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Fatty acids are the simplest type of lipids that serve as building blocks for more complex lipids such as phospholipids, cholesterol, and vitamin E, which are integral to cell membranes (Fig. 1).Expand
Association between altered lipid profiles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in boys
  • S. Avcil
  • Medicine
  • Nordic journal of psychiatry
  • 2018
TLDR
The results of this study add to the growing body of evidence indicating an association between serum cholesterol and ADHD in boys, and further genetic and molecular studies are required to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms underlying this relationship. Expand
VLDL-specific increases of fatty acids in autism spectrum disorder correlate with social interaction
TLDR
The results demonstrated that the increases in FAs correlated positively with social interaction are due to VLDL-specific degradation, providing novel insights into the lipid metabolism underlying ASD pathophysiology. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES
Abnormalities of cholesterol metabolism in autism spectrum disorders
  • E. Tierney, I. Bukelis, +4 authors R. Kelley
  • Biology, Medicine
  • American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics
  • 2006
TLDR
The findings suggest that, in addition to SLOS, there may be other disorders of sterol metabolism or homeostasis associated with ASD, and the type and incidence of other sterol disorders in the same group are investigated. Expand
Cholesterol supplementation does not improve developmental progress in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.
TLDR
Developmental quotients did not improve over time for children with SLOS receiving cholesterol, and baseline cholesterol levels, rather than age when supplementation began or increase inolesterol levels, best predicted developmental outcome. Expand
Abnormal serotonergic development in a mouse model for the Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome: implications for autism
TLDR
Immunohistochemical analyses have revealed a 306% increase in the area of 5‐HT immunoreactivity (5‐HT IR) in the hindbrains of mutant (Dhcr7−/−) mice as compared to age‐matched wild type animals, which may help explain the behavioral phenotype seen in SLOS, and provide clues for future therapeutic interventions that utilize pharmacological modulation of the serotonergic system. Expand
Defective cholesterol biosynthesis associated with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.
TLDR
A combination of abnormally low plasma cholesterol levels and a high concentration of the cholesterol precursor 7- dehydrocholesterol points to a major block in cholesterol biosynthesis at the step in which the C-7(8) double bond of 7-dehydroCholesterol is reduced, forming cholesterol. Expand
The implications of 7-dehydrosterol-7-reductase deficiency (Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome) to neurosteroid production
TLDR
Analysis by GC/MS of urinary steroids excreted by post-pubertal females confirmed the presence of neurosteroid-like compounds in SLOS patient's urine, and it is likely that mechanisms for their synthesis are operable in this organ. Expand
Residual cholesterol synthesis and simvastatin induction of cholesterol synthesis in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome fibroblasts.
TLDR
Determination of residual enzymatic activity for specific DHCR7 mutant alleles will help in understanding the processes underlying the broad phenotypic spectrum found in this disorder and will be useful in identifying patients who may benefit from simvastatin therapy. Expand
The near universal presence of autism spectrum disorders in children with Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome
TLDR
It is suggested that most children with SLOS have some variant of autism, and SLOS appears to have the most consistent relationship with autism of any single gene disorder. Expand
Cholesterol and bile acid replacement therapy in children and adults with Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO/RSH) syndrome.
TLDR
The experience with bile acid and/or cholesterol replacement therapy in six patients with SLOS, now aged 3-27 years, with a confirmed biochemical diagnosis, is reported. Expand
Neurosteroids and neuroactive drugs in mental disorders.
TLDR
The observation that effective pharmacological treatment of some of these pathologies influences the concentrations of neuroactive steroids suggests that these endogenous compounds might themselves prove to be efficacious in the treatment of mental illness. Expand
Oxytocin Increases Retention of Social Cognition in Autism
TLDR
The results of this study suggest that oxytocin might facilitate social information processing in those with autism and provide preliminary support for the use of Oxytocin in the treatment of autism. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...