Autism: The Empathizing–Systemizing (E‐S) Theory

  title={Autism: The Empathizing–Systemizing (E‐S) Theory},
  author={Simon Baron-Cohen},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  • S. Baron-Cohen
  • Published 1 March 2009
  • Psychology
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
The mind‐blindness theory of autism spectrum conditions has been successful in explaining the social and communication difficulties that characterize these conditions but cannot explain the nonsocial features (the narrow interests, need for sameness, and attention to detail). A new theory, the empathizing–systemizing (E‐S) theory, is summarized, which argues two factors are needed to explain the social and nonsocial features of the condition. This is related to other cognitive theories such as… 
The empathizing–systemizing (E–S) model of autism and psychoanalytic theories of truth, play and symbolization
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The Empathizing–Systemizing Theory and ‘Extreme Male Brain’ (EMB) Theory in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): An Explorative, Cross-Sectional Study
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Testing the Empathizing–Systemizing theory of sex differences and the Extreme Male Brain theory of autism in half a million people
It is demonstrated that D-scores (difference between E and S) account for 19 times the variance in autistic traits than do other demographic variables, including sex, underscoring the importance of brain types in autism.
Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders
The reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit is reviewed but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory ofMind tasks.
Theory of Mind Abilities and Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological disorder that significantly impairs children's social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and behaviors. Questions about theory of
The Empathizing-Systemizing Theory, Social Abilities, and Mathematical Achievement in Children
Empathizing, and social skills more generally, are identified as previously unknown predictors of mathematical achievement.
Autism and epistemology IV: Does autism need a theory of mind?
  • G. Fisch
  • Psychology, Biology
    American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • 2013
Recent studies of mirror neurons, their location and interconnections in brain, their relationship to social behavior and language, and the effect of lesions there on speech, language and social behavior, strongly suggests that a neurobiological as opposed to neurocognitive model of autism is a more parsimonious explanation for the social and behavioral phenotypes observed in autism.


Sex Differences in the Brain: Implications for Explaining Autism
It is suggested that specific aspects of autistic neuroanatomy may also be extremes of typical male neuroAnatomy.
Theories of the autistic mind.
The "seeing leads to knowing" deficit in autism: The Pratt and Bryant probe. The challenge has been to explain all of the features of autism, across all individuals on the autistic spectrum. After 25
Autism, Hypersystemizing, and Truth
  • S. Baron-Cohen
  • Psychology
    Quarterly journal of experimental psychology
  • 2008
Evidence is reviewed suggesting that, in the general population, empathizing and systemizing show strong sex differences and the hypersystemizing theory of autism spectrum conditions proposes that people with ASC have an unusually strong drive to systemize.
Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind” ?
Infantile autism: The syndrome and its implications for a neural theory of behavior.
Bernard Rimland published his book Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior (hereafter Infantile Autism)in 1964. The book proposed a theory to explain the
The extreme male brain theory of autism
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) confirmed Brothers' prediction that the STG and amygdala show increased activation when using social intelligence, and provided support for the social brain theory of normal function, and the amygdala theory of autism.
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‘Theory of mind’ in the brain. Evidence from a PET scan study of Asperger syndrome
Five patients with Asperger syndrome with mild variant of autism with normal intellectual functioning were studied, and no task-related activity was found in this region of left medial prefrontal cortex, but normal activity was observed in immediately adjacent areas.
Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: relationship to theory of mind.
A group of high-functioning autistic individuals was compared to a clinical control group matched on VIQ, age, sex and SES, and the relationship of executive function and theory of mind deficits to each other, and their primacy to autism are discussed.