Augmentation of Bone Repair by Inductively Coupled Electromagnetic Fields

  title={Augmentation of Bone Repair by Inductively Coupled Electromagnetic Fields},
  author={C. Andrew and L. Bassett and Robert J. Pawluk and Arthur A. Pilla},
  pages={575 - 577}
Pulsing electromagnetic fields of low frequency and strength have been inductively coupled across skin, directly to bone, to enhance the repair of canine osteotomies. The induced voltage field in bone appears to increase the organization and strength of the repair process at 28 days after "fracture." 
Influence of magnetic fields on calcium salts crystal formation: an explanation of the 'pulsed electromagnetic field' technique for bone healing.
  • A. Madroñero
  • Engineering, Medicine
    Journal of biomedical engineering
  • 1990
In the search for a mechanism by means of which a magnetic field deparalyses non-unions and enhances bone tissue formation, the influence of continuous magnetic fields on the formation of calcium
Clinical effects of electromagnetic and electric fields on fracture healing.
  • J. Ryaby
  • Medicine
    Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • 1998
A brief description of the different techniques and their respective clinical utility is provided, and future directions in basic and clinical research are outlined to exploit fully the usefulness of these noninvasive bone growth stimulation technologies.
Fracture healing in the rabbit fibula when subjected to various capacitively coupled electrical fields
The results show that a dose‐response curve for capacitive coupling and fracture healing exists and that a 220 mV, 250 μA, 60 kHz applied electrical signal is the most effective signal for fracture stimulation in this model.
Electric Fields on Fracture Healing
The clinical use of electric and electromagnetic fields for fracture healing applications began in the early 1970s. Since then, several technologies have been developed and shown to promote healing
Fracture Healing in Rats Exposed to Extremely Low-Frequency Electric Fields
Weak electric current has been shown capable of stimulating and altering bone growth and healingx; its clinical use in orthopedics holds considerable promise. ' There are 2 basic methods of applying
Skeletal Tissue Electromechanics & Electrical Stimulation of Growth & Remodeling
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  • Materials Science, Medicine
    IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine
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The role of electromechanical transduction in the structure-function-property relationships of bone and other connective tissues in vivo is considered, and the piezoelectric behavior of bone is
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been used in the treatment of delayed union, non-union 1, avascular necrosis 2 and failed arthrodesis 3. An in vitro study 4 showed that PEMF can also reduce
Low-intensity electromagnetic and mechanical modulation of bone growth and repair: are they equivalent?
  • A. Pilla
  • Materials Science, Medicine
    Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
  • 2002
It is proposed that the time- varying endogenous electric field, E(t), from a time-varying change in the mechanical environment of healing or remodeling bone, can act as a dose-dependent growth stimulus, suggesting that bone repair or remodelling may be interchangeably modulated using mechanical (including US) or electromagnetic signals.
Effects of electromagnetic fields in experimental fracture repair.
There is a large body of evidence that steady direct current and time varying electric fields are generated in living bone by metabolic activity and mechanical deformation, respectively, which appears to trigger mitosis and recruitment of osteogenic cells.
The electrical stimulation of bone healing
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    Proceedings of the IEEE
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A brief introduction to the structure and electrical properties of bone is followed by an account of investigations into bone growth stimulation using small electric currents. Clinical work using


Electric Enhancement of Bone Healing
A human congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia, unresponsive to conventional treatment, was stimulated to healing by direct electric current. The method was modeled after prior experimental work in
Bone Growth in Organ Culture Modified by an Electric Field
Unidirectional pulsating electric fields caused changes in the patterns of growth in rat calvaria grown in organ culture, and the growth pattern became disoriented in a strong field.
Generation of Electric Potentials by Bone in Response to Mechanical Stress
The amplitude of electrical potentials generated in stressed bone is dependent upon the rate and magnitude of bony deformation, while polarity is determined by the direction of bending. Areas under
Electric fields and bone loss of disuse.
It was found that the bone weight loss and cortical area reduction caused by immobilization were reduced by electric field treatments.
Contactless nerve stimulation and signal detection by inductive transducer
In an attempt to avoid the undesirable aspects of galvanic nerve stimulation, a toroidal inductive transducer was developed and tested. It was found that a nerve threading the lumen of the toroid
Induction of partial limb regeneration in Rana pipiens by galvanic stimulation
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    The Anatomical record
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Forelimbs of small adult frogs were amputated and the stumps implanted with silver‐platinum bimetallic rods insulated except at the tips, and controls consisted of animals with either no implant or implants of partially insulated silver or platinum wire.
Lead Levels in Deciduous Teeth of Urban and Suburban American Children
The exfoliated primary tooth might offer a way to examine the lead content of children who are at risk, and if children with elevated tissue lead could be reliably identified, and their neurological and psychological function evaluated, the incidence of silent brain damage from lead ingestion could be established.