Auditory perception of radio‐frequency electromagnetic fields

  title={Auditory perception of radio‐frequency electromagnetic fields},
  author={Chung-Kwang Chou and Arthur W. Guy and R{\'o}bert Galambo{\vs}},
  journal={Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
Absorption of pulsed microwave energy can produce an auditory sensation in human beings with normal hearing. The phenomenon manifests itself as a clicking, buzzing, or hissing sound depending on the modulatory characteristics of the microwaves. While the energy absorbed (∠10 μJ/g) and the resulting increment of temperature (∠10−6 °C) per pulse at the threshold of perception are small, most investigators of the phenomenon believe that it is caused by thermoelastic expansion. That is, one hears… 

Review of Microwave Auditory Effect -- Rediscovery of Radiofrequency Hearing Phenomenon

It is common to believe that we can hear sound but that we cannot hear radio-frequency. Contrary to such common prejudice and misunderstanding, numerous research papers have been reported that

Mechanisms and Physiologic Significance of Microwave Action on the Auditory System

Studies conducted by the authors and their coworkers on the mechanisms and physiologic significance of radiofrequency hearing effects are reviewed. Results of these studies demonstrate that 1)


Human auditory perception of pulses of radiofrequency (RF) energy is a well-established phenomenon that is dependent upon the energy in a single pulse and not on average power density. RF-induced

Tutorial on Microwave Stimulation to Induce Auditory Perception : Paradigm Shift to Radiofrequency Hearing

The science community is governed by the paradigm that we cannot hear radiofrequency. Although microwave is one form of radiofrequency, it has been repeatedly reported that pulse-modulated microwave

Auditory response to pulsed radiofrequency energy

The hearing of RF induced sounds at exposure levels many orders of magnitude greater than the hearing threshold is considered to be a biological effect without an accompanying health effect, and the thermoelastic expansion theory as the explanation for the RF hearing phenomenon is supported.

Generalized model of the microwave auditory effect

A generalized theoretical model for evaluating the amplitudes of the sound waves generated in a spherical head model, which is irradiated by microwave pulses, is developed and it is found that, for equal average specific absorption rates, the sound intensitygenerated by a surface localized heating pattern is comparable to that generated by a heating pattern that is peaked at the centre.

Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation

The reaction of the central nervous system to microwaves may serve as an early indicator of disturbances in regulatory functions of many systems.

Effects of the acute exposure to the electromagnetic field of mobile phones on human auditory brainstem responses

Acute exposure to the EMF of mobile phones does not cause perturbations in ABR latencies, and these negative results should not encourage excessive mobile communication.


The most frequently cited sequence of events used to explain auditory sensations resulting from microwave pulses, or “microwave hearing”, starts with transduction of microwave energy to sound in the




A bioengineering approach is applied for establishing the threshold of the effect in man and animals as a function of pulse power or energy, pulse shape, and carrier frequency and whether the stimulation is due to direct action of the em fields on the nervous system or to transduced acoustic energy acting on the auditory system.

Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy.

  • A. H. Frey
  • Physics
    Journal of applied physiology
  • 1962
Using extremely low average power densities of electromagnetic energy, the perception of sounds was induced in normal and deaf humans and attempts were made to match the sounds induced by electromagnetic energy and acoustic energy.

Some peculiarities of auditory sensations evoked by pulsed microwave fields

Rectangularly pulsed, 800-MHz microwaves were coupled via waveguide from a 500-W source to the parietal area of the head of normal human observers (Os). Pulse widths from 5 to 150 μS and

Microwave-induced auditory responses in guinea pigs: Relationship of threshold and microwave-pulse duration

Auditory brainstem-evoked electrical responses of guinea pigs were used to determine microwave energy thresholds for perception of pulsed radiations. A klystron was used to generate 918-MHz

Microwave hearing: The response of single auditory neurons in the cat to pulsed microwave radiation

Inferences regarding the mechanism of “microwave hearing” heretofore have been based upon theoretical studies, reports of human observers, animal behavioral experiments, and the recording of auditory

Microwave auditory effect- a comparison of some possible transduction mechanisms.

  • J. C. Lin
  • Physics
    The Journal of microwave power
  • 1976
While all three mechanisms (radiation pressure, strictive force and thermal expansion) are capable of producing the phenomenon, the stress resulting from thermal expansion may be so great that it masks the effect of the others completely.

Mammalian Auditory Responses to 3.0 GHz Microwave Pulses

The inability of some of the human subjects to bear short microwave pulses was correlated with hearing losses above 8 kHz in frequency, and the microwave peak power density levels at the threshold of producing an auditory response were determined.

Middle-ear structures contribute little to auditory perception of microwaves.

Results indicate that activity in the central auditory pathway as induced by pulsed microwaves only requires stimulation of the cochlea and Conduction of pressure waves through the bones of the calvarium appears to be the mechanism responsible in perception of pulsing microwaves.

Characteristics of microwave‐induced cochlear microphonics

Cochlear microphonics (CM) have been recorded from guinea pigs and from cats of differing body mass during irradiation by 918- and by 2450-MHz pulsed microwaves. Both horn applicators and a

Microwave Hearing: Evidence for Thermoacoustic Auditory Stimulation by Pulsed Microwaves

Acoustic transients can be thermally generated in water by pulsed microwave energy. The peak pressure level of these transients, measured within the audible frequency band as a function of the