Auditory defence in the peacock butterfly (Inachis io) against mice (Apodemus flavicollis and A. sylvaticus)

  title={Auditory defence in the peacock butterfly (Inachis io) against mice (Apodemus flavicollis and A. sylvaticus)},
  author={Martin Olofsson and Sven Jakobsson and Christer Wiklund},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
Morphological and behavioural traits can serve as anti-predator defence either by reducing detection or recognition risks, or by thwarting initiated attacks. The latter defence is secondary and often involves a ‘startle display’ comprising a sudden release of signals targeting more than one sensory modality. A suggested candidate for employing a multimodal defence is the peacock butterfly, Inachis io, which, by wing-flicking suddenly, produces sonic and ultrasonic sounds and displays four large… 
Deimatic Display in the European Swallowtail Butterfly as a Secondary Defence against Attacks from Great Tits
It is concluded that the swallowtail’s startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines.
Eyespot display in the peacock butterfly triggers antipredator behaviors in naïve adult fowl
The results show that birds typically fled when peacock butterflies performed their display regardless of whether eyespots were visible or painted over, and suggest that predators perceive large lepidopteran eyespots as belonging to the eyes of a potential predator.
Simultaneous percussion by the larvae of a stem-nesting solitary bee – a collaborative defence strategy against parasitoid wasps?
It is hypothesized that these disturbance sounds by the postdefecating larva of the Palaearctic osmiine bee Hoplitis (Alcidamea) tridentata have evolved to disturb the reflectance signals that parasitoid wasps use to localize concealed hosts during vibrational sounding.
Survival Sounds in Insects: Diversity, Function, and Evolution
Sonic defenses in insects are poorly understood and it is recommended that future investigations focus on testing hypotheses explaining the functions and evolution of these survival sounds using predator-prey experiments and comparative phylogenetics.
A bee or not a bee: an experimental test of acoustic mimicry by hoverflies
It is concluded that similarity of acoustic signals exists among Hymenoptera and hoverflies, acoustic aposematic signals (but not the almost identical mimetic signals) are effective at reducing predation, and wild birds exhibit learned rather than innate aversion to certain acoustic stimuli.
The sound of a snail: two cases of acoustic defence in gastropods
The topic of sound production in (land) snails seems to have been largely neglected since the paper by Caziot (1914, except for the mention by Fechter & Falkner (1990) of the common name ‘Grunzschnecke’ (grunting snail) for C. apertus.
Testing the feasibility of the startle-first route to deimatism
An experimental system in which naïve domestic chicks forage for artificial deimatic prey is used to test the feasibility of ‘the startle-first hypothesis’ of the evolution of deimatism, and shows that both predictions hold, but only when the movement is fast.
An Evolutionary Game Model of Sex-Dependent Antipredator Signaling
This study provides the first model of intrasexual dimorphism in antipredator signaling and brings new testable predictions.


Prey survival by predator intimidation: an experimental study of peacock butterfly defence against blue tits
The results showed that eyespots alone, or in combination with sound, constituted an effective defence; only 1 out of 34 butterflies with intact eyespots was killed, whereas 13 out of 20 butterflies without eyespots were killed, indicating that they are not distasteful.
Winter predation on two species of hibernating butterflies: monitoring rodent attacks with infrared cameras
What’s the buzz? Ultrasonic and sonic warning signals in caterpillars of the great peacock moth (Saturnia pyri)
A novel form of sound production—chirping—in caterpillars of the common European Great Peacock moth (Saturnia pyri) is reported, supporting the hypothesis that these sounds function in acoustic aposematism.
Crypsis versus intimidation—anti-predation defence in three closely related butterflies
It is demonstrated that birds take longer to discover the leaf mimicking species, the comma, than the tortoiseshell and the peacock, and the intimidating pattern and behaviour of peacocks was effective—when discovered, all peacocks survived interactions with blue tits, whereas only 22% of commas and 8% of small tortoisehells survived.
Rodent predation on hibernating peacock and small tortoiseshell butterflies
It is contended that small rodents are likely important predators on overwintering butterflies, both because rodents are active throughout winter when butterflies are torpid and because they occur at similar sites.
Hornet predation on peacock butterflies and ecological aspects on the evolution of complex eyespots on butterfly wings
Ahypothesis for the evolution of intimidating eyespots on butterfly wings is advanced, suggesting that it is preceded by, and associated with, wing-flicking behaviour which in turn is associated with fruitor sap-feeding.
Multimodal warning signals for a multiple predator world
It is shown that warning signals of tiger moths vary according to the seasonal and daily activity patterns of birds and bats—predators with divergent sensory capacities; and it is suggested that the evolution of acoustic warning signals may lack the theoretical difficulties associated with the origination of conspicuous colouration.
Acoustic mimicry in a predator–prey interaction
Visualizing bat–moth interactions with high-speed, infrared videography, empirical evidence for acoustic mimicry in the ultrasonic warning sounds that tiger moths produce in response to echolocating bats is provided.
Intimidating butterflies.
  • G. Ruxton
  • Biology
    Trends in ecology & evolution
  • 2005
The Function of Eyespot Patterns in the Lepidoptera
It has been shown that many small passerines possess inborn responses to their predators, and it is probable that these are "parasitised" by the eyespot patterns of insects.