Audiovisual mirror neurons and action recognition

  title={Audiovisual mirror neurons and action recognition},
  author={Christian Keysers and Evelyne Kohler and Maria Alessandra Umilt{\`a} and Luca Nanetti and Leonardo Fogassi and Vittorio Gallese},
  journal={Experimental Brain Research},
Many object-related actions can be recognized both by their sound and by their vision. Here we describe a population of neurons in the ventral premotor cortex of the monkey that discharge both when the animal performs a specific action and when it hears or sees the same action performed by another individual. These 'audiovisual mirror neurons' therefore represent actions independently of whether these actions are performed, heard or seen. The magnitude of auditory and visual responses did not… 
The role of actions in auditory object discrimination
Mirror neurons
Empathy and the Somatotopic Auditory Mirror System in Humans
The role of mirror neurons in movement suppression
Simultaneous electromyography recordings from hand and arm muscles provide important evidence that the activity of these cells cannot be explained by any covert movement on the part of the monkey and provide evidence that spike duration alone is not a reliable indicator of cell type in macaque motor cortex.
When Sounds Become Actions: Higher-order Representation of Newly Learned Action Sounds in the Human Motor System
The results suggest that the human brain embodies a higher-order audio-visuo-motor representation of perceived actions, which is muscle-independent and corresponds to the goals of the action.
Action Representation of Sound: Audiomotor Recognition Network While Listening to Newly Acquired Actions
Functional magnetic resonance imaging findings support the hypothesis of a “hearing–doing” system that is highly dependent on the individual's motor repertoire, gets established rapidly, and consists of Broca's area as its hub.
Multimodal action representation in human left ventral premotor cortex
Evidence is provided that the ventral premotor cortex may provide an action representation that abstracts across both agency (self and other) and sensory modality (hearing and seeing) and may be an important precursor of language functions.
Representing actions through their sound
The evidence in favour of somatotopy as a possible representational rule underlying the auditory mapping of actions is examined and the links between language and audio-motor action mapping are considered.


Hearing Sounds, Understanding Actions: Action Representation in Mirror Neurons
This work found neurons in monkey premotor cortex that discharge when the animal performs a specific action and when it hears the related sound, and this discovery in the monkey homolog of Broca's area might shed light on the origin of language.
Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions.
Action recognition in the premotor cortex.
It is proposed that mirror neurons form a system for matching observation and execution of motor actions, similar to that of mirror neurons exists in humans and could be involved in recognition of actions as well as phonetic gestures.
Neural mechanisms subserving the perception of human actions
Language within our grasp
A neuronal representation of the location of nearby sounds
Neurons in the brain of macaque monkeys that represent the auditory space surrounding the head, within roughly 30 cm, have spatial receptive fields that extend a limited distance outward from the head.
Frontal units of the monkey coding the associative significance of visual and auditory stimuli
The results indicate that some frontal units participate in the crossmodal coding of the associative significance of the stimulus independent of its physical properties, and most frontal units play different roles depending on the modality of the stimuli.
Neuronal correlates of a perceptual decision
It is suggested that under the authors' conditions, psychophysical judgements could be based on the activity of a relatively small number of neurons.
The Speed of Sight
The performance of single neurons was comparable to that of humans and responded in a similar way to changes in presentation rate and the implications for the role of temporal cortex cells in perception are discussed.