Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the second most frequent cause of mental retardation and sensorineural hearing loss, after genetic factors. Recently, pediatric forensic and fetopathological studies have led to progress in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various neurosensory sequelae. Thanks to the identification of certain prognostic factors of hearing loss, therapeutic protocols based on antiviral molecules are now proposed for target populations. This treatment has shown efficacy in limiting hearing threshold deterioration and even, in some cases, seems to provide partial recovery of hearing in symptomatic congenitally infected CMV neonates. However, optimal treatment duration and administration modalities are not clearly defined. This article reviews recent data concerning audiovestibular sequelae and their management in children congenitally infected by CMV.