Identification of a Potential Third Component of the Male-Produced Pheromone of Anoplophora glabripennis and its Effect on Behavior
The male-produced pheromone of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which is an equal blend of 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal, was used in laboratory bioassays and in the greenhouse to determine its potential for attracting A. glabripennis adults. In modified "walking wind tunnels," virgin females were most attracted to the alcohol component, and virgin males were repelled by the pheromone blend at the lowest and highest amounts offered. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays also showed that females were significantly more attracted to the pheromone and its components than males were. However, males were more attracted to plant volatiles than females. Of 12 plant volatiles tested, delta-3-carene and (E)-caryophyllene were highly attractive to males, whereas (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was repellent to males. Combining the male pheromone blend with (-)-linalool alone or with (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol attracted significantly more males than did the pheromone alone. We tested four trap designs in our quarantine greenhouse with eight different lures. The Intercept Panel traps and the hand-made screen sleeve traps caught more beetles than the Plum Curculio traps and Lindgren funnel traps. Intercept traps worked best when baited with male blend and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, whereas screen sleeve traps were most attractive when baited with (-)-linalool. Our findings provide evidence of the attractiveness of the A. glabripennis male-produced pheromone and suggest that it has a role in mate-finding. It is also a first step toward the development of an efficient trap design and lure combination to monitor A. glabripennis infestations in the field.