Attosecond Ionization and Tunneling Delay Time Measurements in Helium

@article{Eckle2008AttosecondIA,
  title={Attosecond Ionization and Tunneling Delay Time Measurements in Helium},
  author={Petrissa Eckle and Adrian N. Pfeiffer and Claudio Cirelli and Andr{\'e} Staudte and Reinhard D{\"o}rner and H. G. Muller and Markus B{\"u}ttiker and Ursula Keller},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={322},
  pages={1525 - 1529}
}
It is well established that electrons can escape from atoms through tunneling under the influence of strong laser fields, but the timing of the process has been controversial and far too rapid to probe in detail. We used attosecond angular streaking to place an upper limit of 34 attoseconds and an intensity-averaged upper limit of 12 attoseconds on the tunneling delay time in strong field ionization of a helium atom. The ionization field derives from 5.5-femtosecond-long near-infrared laser… 
Laser induced tunneling ionization in less than 12 attoseconds measured by attosecond angular streaking
  • C. CirelliA. N. Pfeiffer U. Keller
  • Physics
    CLEO/Europe - EQEC 2009 - European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the European Quantum Electronics Conference
  • 2009
It is typically assumed that electrons can escape from atoms through tunneling when exposed to strong laser fields, but the timing of the process has been controversial, and far too rapid to probe in
Determination of the Ionization Time Using Attosecond Photoelectron Interferometry.
TLDR
A novel attosecond photoelectron interferometer is proposed, which is based on the interference of the direct and near-forward rescattering electron wave packets, to determine the time information characterizing the tunneling process.
Full experimental determination of tunneling time with attosecond-scale streaking method
Tunneling is one of the most fundamental and ubiquitous processes in the quantum world. The question of how long a particle takes to tunnel through a potential barrier has sparked a long-standing
Introduction to attosecond time-delays in photoionization
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Resolving strong-field tunneling ionization with a temporal double-slit interferometer
Laser-induced tunneling ionization is one of the most fundamental and ubiquitous quantum processes and it initiates various ultrafast phenomena in intense laser-atom and laser-molecule interactions.
Quantum interference in strong-field ionization by a linearly polarized laser pulse and its relevance to tunnel exit time and momentum
We investigate the liberation of an atomic electron by a linearly polarized single-cycle nearinfrared laser pulse having a peak intensity that ensures tunneling. Based on phase space analysis and
Attoclock with bicircular laser fields as a probe of velocity-dependent tunnel-exit positions
Strong-field ionization of atoms can be investigated on the attosecond time scale by using the attoclock method, i.e. by observing the peak of the photoelectron momentum distribution (PMD) after
Attoclock reveals geometry for laser-induced tunneling
Tunneling plays a central role in the interaction of matter with intense laser pulses, and also in time-resolved measurements on the attosecond timescale. A strong laser field influences the binding
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