Inappropriate use of prophylactic antibiotics can increase the rates of surgical site wound infections, lead to the development of resistant organisms and to increased health care costs. Despite widespread knowledge of standard antibiotic prophylaxis protocols (SAPs) in implant surgeries, it is thought that many Nigerian surgeons do not comply. The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness of Nigerian orthopaedic surgeons of SAPs in implant surgeries and their compliance. This was an observational study done using a questionnaire to collect data from orthopaedic surgeons at the National Orthopaedic Association annual conference held at Lokoja, Nigeria in November 2013. There were 66 respondents divided into 56 consultants and ten surgical residents. Most respondents were aware of standard guidelines for the use of prophylactic antibiotics (86.36 %). Many of them (63.63 %) did not know the average rate of infection following implant surgery in their institutions. Compliance with SAPs was found to be 30.3 %. Compliance was worse among surgeons between 41 and 50 years of age and consultants with between six and ten years of practice. Most respondents are aware of standard antibiotic protocols, but do not comply with them. The study also suggests that surgeons with intermediate levels of experience and those between 41 and 50 years of age were most unlikely to comply.