Prevention of diisopropylphosphorofluoridate-induced myopathy by botulinum toxin type A blockage of quantal release of acetylcholine
It has been reported recently that some oximes reactivating acetylcholinesterase (AChE) exhibit concomitant ganglion-blocking effects which presumably could contribute independently to their powerfull antidotal action in organophosphate inhibitor (OPI) poisoning, thus mimicking some unrelated substances which are effective antidotes without reactivating AChE. This raises the question whether OPI-induced muscle lesions, like some other sympfoms could also be attenuated by oximes and other antidotes in the absence of AChE reactivation. To test this possibility, the oxime HI-6 was applied at increasing time intervals after the injection of soman until and beyond the point when soman-AchE complex becomes completely “aged” and not capable of reactivation. As the examples of OPI antidotes which do not reactivate AChE, the muscarinic antagonist atropine and the ganglion-blocking agent hexamethonium were also tested on possible attenuation of muscle lesions. The proportions of fibers with lesions, AChE inhibition and muscle fasciculations in expertmental groups relative to the controls treated with soman only were evaluated. The results show that HI-6 can attenuate lesions only if AChE is partially reactivated and muscle fasciculations are permanently climinated. However, atropine does not affect either AChE inhibition or muscle fasciculations and is also ineffective in counteracting the lesions in spite of its potency as an effective general antidote. Hexamethonium also does not affect AChE inhibition, but abolishes fasciculations and effectively attenuates muscle lesions. The latter findings reveal the existence of lesion-protecting mechanisms unrelated to AChE reactivation, which if further elucidated might become potentially relevant for additional treatment in OPI poisoning.