Fibroblast Growth Factor Type 1 (FGF1)-Overexpressed Adipose-Derived Mesenchaymal Stem Cells (AD-MSCFGF1) Induce Neuroprotection and Functional Recovery in a Rat Stroke Model
In our previous study, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Crocus sativus elicited antinociceptive effects in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. In this study, we explored anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of such extracts in CCI animals. A total of 72 animals were divided as vehicle-treated CCI rats, sham group, CCI animals treated with the effective dose of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (200 mg/kg, i.p.). The lumbar spinal cord levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were evaluated at days 3 and 7 after CCI (n=3, for each group). The apoptotic protein changes were evaluated at days 3 and 7 by western blotting. Oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione reduced (GSH), were measured on day 7 after CCI. Inflammatory cytokines levels increased in CCI animals on days 3 and 7, which were suppressed by both extracts. The ratio of Bax/ Bcl2 was elevated on day 3 but not on day 7, in CCI animals as compared to sham operated animals and decreased following treatment with both extracts at this time. Both extracts attenuated MDA and increased GSH levels in CCI animals. It may be concluded that saffron alleviates neuropathic pain, at least in part, through attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines, antioxidant activity and apoptotic pathways.