A phase I clinical study to evaluate safety of orally administered, genetically engineered Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for canine osteosarcoma
PURPOSE The authors investigated the utility of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium for preventing the establishment of hepatic metastases in a murine model. METHODS A single, oral 10(8) cfu dose of attenuated S typhimurium was given 8 days before the establishment of a model of unresectable hepatic metastases. Animals were assessed for hepatic tumor number and volume, hepatic lymphocyte population analysis, and survival. RESULTS Pretreatment with Salmonella provided a 10-fold reduction in hepatic tumor burden compared with saline-treated controls. The antitumor effect is associated with markedly elevated natural killer (NK), CD8+ and CD4+ hepatic lymphocytes. Pretreatment with Salmonella provided a 90-day survival rate of 30%, whereas control animals were dead by 30 days. All long-term survivors were devoid of hepatic tumor. CONCLUSIONS Attenuated S typhimurium effectively prevents the establishment of hepatic metastases in a murine model, providing a clear survival benefit. Thus, it may represent a novel form of in vivo immunotherapy for the prevention of hepatic metastases for patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer.