Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and digit ratios in a college sample

  title={Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and digit ratios in a college sample},
  author={Joan C. Stevenson and Phillip M Everson and D.C. Williams and G Hipskind and Mackenzie Grimes and Eldon R. Mahoney},
  journal={American Journal of Human Biology},
Diagnosticians recognize three subtypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) if there are developmentally inappropriate levels (six or more symptoms) of Hyperactive‐Impulsive behavior, or Inattentive behavior, or both (Combined), respectively. ADHD may partly reflect androgen dysfunction, and an arguable proxy for prenatal androgen exposure is the 2D:4D finger ratio set at least as early as week 9 in the fetus; this is lower in men than in women. We examined the relationship… 
The Relationship between Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratios, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Aggression, and Intelligence Levels in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Evidence that fetal androgen exposure may contribute to the pathophysiology of ADHD, at least in boys is provided, and no significant correlation was detected between right-hand 2D:4D ratios and the psychological questionnaire scores.
The Potential Role of Neuroendocrine in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
The neuroendocrine system, the activation of which is closely associated with age and gender, may influence developing neural circuitry and be‐ havioral systems; thus it has reasonably been speculated that this system plays a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD.
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
This study investigated the ADHD symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine, hormonal, and metabolic condition associated with hyperandrogenism and suggested that women with PCOS have higher ADHD symptoms.
Masculinized finger-length ratios of boys, but not girls, are associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
It is concluded that prenatal, organizational effects of gonadal hormones may play a role in the development of ADHD and contribute to explaining sex differences in the prevalence rates of this childhood disorder.
Conscientiousness as a mediator of the association between masculinized finger-length ratios and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • M. Martel
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 2009
Lower levels of conscientiousness statistically mediated the relationship between more masculine right 2D:4D ratios and increased ADHD inattentive symptoms, possibly acting through the trait mechanism ofcientiousness.
Clinical characteristics, neuroimaging findings, and neuropsychological functioning in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Sex differences.
The recent literature data is reported, discussing still open research questions about the clinical presentation, neuroimaging findings, and neuropsychological functioning in ADHD with a focus on the impact of sex differences-a deeper insight in these unresolved issues may have relevant clinical and therapeutic implications for tailored, effective, and long-lasting interventions.
Autism spectrum disorder and new perspectives on the reliability of second to fourth digit ratio.
No significant differences were found in digit ratios between neurotypical subjects and those with ASD nor was there a relationship with the reported autistic traits, which leads us to question the reliability of 2D:4D and its relation to ASD.


Teacher reports of DSM-IV ADHD, ODD, and CD symptoms in schoolchildren.
OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence of DSM-IV symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and age, gender, and comorbidity
Attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder and fluctuating asymmetry in another college sample
AD/HD symptoms levels increased with an increase in body FA in female college students not selected for AD/HD, according to the Rasch versions of responses to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Attention‐Deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in a college sample: An exploratory study
To measure whether AD/HD behaviors positively correlate with FA in head, hands, and fingerprints of a sample of college students, a Rasch measurement model analysis of individual responses to the WURS produced a true interval score for each person that is a measure of individual “AD/HDness.
The Internal Restlessness Scale
The results of the IRS suggest that college students with ADHD report significantly higher ratings of internal restlessness than college students without ADHD, and the IRS appears to have adequate test—retest reliability and a four-factor structure.
Assessing symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: which is more valid?
The results provide further evidence for the validity of adult ADHD and support the intriguing idea that, from a familial perspective, the assessment of ADHD may be more valid in adults than in children.
Association and linkage of the dopamine transporter gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: heterogeneity owing to diagnostic subtype and severity.
The results replicate and extend previous findings of the association between the DAT1 gene and childhood ADHD and represent one of the first replicated relations of a candidate gene and a psychiatric disorder in children.
Gender differences in ADHD: a meta-analysis and critical review.
  • M. Gaub, C. Carlson
  • Psychology
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • 1997
The need for future research examining gender differences in ADHD is strongly indicated, with attention to methodological limitations of the current literature, including the potential confounding effects of referral bias, comorbidity, developmental patterns, diagnostic procedures, and rater source.
Diagnostic controversies in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Competing approaches for diagnosis of adult ADHD used in clinical and research practice are described and compared and recommendations are made as a basis for clinical assessment and future research.
Attention deficit disorder in reading-disabled twins: Evidence for a genetic etiology
Results of this analysis suggest that ADHD is highly heritable and distinguishing between possible subtypes of attentional problems may facilitate tests of more searching etiological questions.