Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and digit ratios in a college sample

@article{Stevenson2007AttentionDD,
  title={Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and digit ratios in a college sample},
  author={Joan C. Stevenson and Phillip M Everson and D.C. Williams and G Hipskind and Mackenzie Grimes and Eldon R. Mahoney},
  journal={American Journal of Human Biology},
  year={2007},
  volume={19}
}
Diagnosticians recognize three subtypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) if there are developmentally inappropriate levels (six or more symptoms) of Hyperactive‐Impulsive behavior, or Inattentive behavior, or both (Combined), respectively. ADHD may partly reflect androgen dysfunction, and an arguable proxy for prenatal androgen exposure is the 2D:4D finger ratio set at least as early as week 9 in the fetus; this is lower in men than in women. We examined the relationship… 
The Relationship between Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratios, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Aggression, and Intelligence Levels in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
TLDR
Evidence that fetal androgen exposure may contribute to the pathophysiology of ADHD, at least in boys is provided, and no significant correlation was detected between right-hand 2D:4D ratios and the psychological questionnaire scores.
The Potential Role of Neuroendocrine in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
TLDR
The neuroendocrine system, the activation of which is closely associated with age and gender, may influence developing neural circuitry and be‐ havioral systems; thus it has reasonably been speculated that this system plays a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD.
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
TLDR
This study investigated the ADHD symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine, hormonal, and metabolic condition associated with hyperandrogenism and suggested that women with PCOS have higher ADHD symptoms.
Masculinized finger-length ratios of boys, but not girls, are associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
TLDR
It is concluded that prenatal, organizational effects of gonadal hormones may play a role in the development of ADHD and contribute to explaining sex differences in the prevalence rates of this childhood disorder.
Conscientiousness as a mediator of the association between masculinized finger-length ratios and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • M. Martel
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 2009
TLDR
Lower levels of conscientiousness statistically mediated the relationship between more masculine right 2D:4D ratios and increased ADHD inattentive symptoms, possibly acting through the trait mechanism ofcientiousness.
Clinical characteristics, neuroimaging findings, and neuropsychological functioning in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Sex differences.
TLDR
The recent literature data is reported, discussing still open research questions about the clinical presentation, neuroimaging findings, and neuropsychological functioning in ADHD with a focus on the impact of sex differences-a deeper insight in these unresolved issues may have relevant clinical and therapeutic implications for tailored, effective, and long-lasting interventions.
Autism spectrum disorder and new perspectives on the reliability of second to fourth digit ratio.
TLDR
No significant differences were found in digit ratios between neurotypical subjects and those with ASD nor was there a relationship with the reported autistic traits, which leads us to question the reliability of 2D:4D and its relation to ASD.
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