Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: complexities and controversies

  title={Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: complexities and controversies},
  author={Alison Schonwald and Erin Lechner},
  journal={Current Opinion in Pediatrics},
Purpose of review Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder continues to be a prevalent childhood behavioral disorder, with significant clinical and media interest. Providers must be current with research findings that impact the evolving understanding of this complex entity. This article summarizes recent progress in our view of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, with emphasis on controversies around diagnosis and treatment, and future management directions. Recent findings Literature… 

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder, primarily characterized by the co-existence of attention problems and hyperactivity. It affects

Why the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Matters

Strong partnerships between clinicians and patients with ADHD may be the best way to reduce the negative impacts of this disorder and more basic and clinical research will improve methods of diagnosis and information dissemination.


Email: ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder. It is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often persists into

Diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: much ado about something.

  • Itai Berger
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • 2011
This review addresses the diagnostic difficulties of ADHD and considers some steps that would make ADHD a more easily identifiable disorder.

Attitudes Toward Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment: Parents' and Children's Perspectives

The pediatric neurologist has a crucial role in affecting attitudes of children and parents toward methylphenidate treatment, and it is concluded that the neurologist's explanation is the single most effective factor regarding the attitude toward methyl phenidate treatment.

ADHD stimulant medication misuse and considerations for current prescribing practice: a literature review

  • Deirdre Carolan
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -)
  • 2021
Conclusions Consideration of the impact that variable treatment trajectories may have on the risk of later SUD development is recommended, with further research potentially leading to the development of different management pathways based on an individual’s multivariate treatment profile.

Effects of Caffeine Consumption on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies

The hypothesis that the cognitive effects of caffeine found in animal models could be translated to human ADHD, particularly during adolescence, is strengthened, and the role of caffeine in modulating ADHD-like symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity is contradictory, raising discrepancies that require further clarification.

A systematic review and analysis of long-term outcomes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of treatment and non-treatment

The following broad trends emerged: without treatment, people with ADHD had poorer long-term outcomes in all categories compared with people without ADHD, and treatment for ADHD improved long- term outcomes compared with untreated ADHD, although not usually to normal levels.

Imaging of ADHD examines changes in cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism and concentrations of synaptic structures

Molecular findings from nuclear medicine imaging in ADHD are described and imaging evidence for dysfunction of the dopaminergicfrontostriatal neural circuits as central in the pathophysiology of ADHD is summarized, with special focus on the dopamine reuptake transporter.

Evaluation of Cutaneous Findings in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study

It was found that onychophagy, traumatic skin changes, atopy and related symptoms, certain birthmarks, and acne were frequent cutaneous findings in children with ADHD.



Update: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the primary care office

Despite great interest in alternative, nonstimulant and behavioral treatments, methylphenidate and amphetamine-based medications remain the mainstay of AD/HD intervention.

How common is attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Towards resolution of the controversy: results from a population‐based study

The objectives of the studies described in this paper were to address uncertainty about many aspects of AD/HD, including its precise frequency of occurrence, presence of comorbid conditions, long‐term outcomes and the impact of treatment on long-term outcome.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Selective Overview

Perinatal complications in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings.

It is suggested that neonatal complications are probably a nonshared environmental risk factor that may be pathogenic in children with ADHD.

The Role of Stimulants in the Treatment of Preschool Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Clinicians must rely on developmental assessment skills, available standardised rating instruments, reports about the child from multiple informants, and knowledge of the risks and benefits of available pharmacological and behavioural treatments, in order to treat preschool children with ADHD effectively.

Mental health in the United States. Prevalence of diagnosis and medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder--United States, 2003.

  • Medicine, Psychology
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
  • 2005
To estimate rates of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment for ADHD, CDC analyzed data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), which indicated that, in 2003, approximately 4.4 million children aged 4-17 years were reported to have a history of ADHD; of these, 2.5 million (56%) were reporting to be taking medication for the disorder.

The Oxford-Durham Study: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Dietary Supplementation With Fatty Acids in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

Fatty acid supplementation may offer a safe efficacious treatment option for educational and behavioral problems among children with DCD, and an inability to detect any improvement in motor skills reflects the measures used.