Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Girls

  title={Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Girls},
  author={Jud A. Staller and Stephen V. Faraone},
  journal={CNS Drugs},
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in girls is a topic of growing research and clinical interest. For many years, girls with ADHD have been ignored and overshadowed by hyperkinetic and impulsive boys, but they are now attracting interest in an effort to understand the similarities and differences in the prevalence, symptoms, familial risk, comorbidities and treatment of ADHD in the two sexes. A review of past and current literature finds that the symptoms of ADHD are not sex… 

Gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  • J. Rucklidge
  • Psychology
    The Psychiatric clinics of North America
  • 2010

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children:A Short Review and Literature

Children in North America appear to have a higher rate of ADHD than children in Africa and the Middle East; however, this may be due to differing methods of diagnosis used in different areas of the world.

Annual Research Review: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in girls and women: underrepresentation, longitudinal processes, and key directions.

Focusing on ADHD in females is necessary to characterize causal and maintaining mechanisms with accuracy and to foster responsive interventions, as highlighted in the closing list of clinical implications and research priorities.

Psychiatric Comorbidity Differences in Clinic-Referred Children and Adolescents With ADHD According to the Subtypes and Gender

This study does not provide evidence supporting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes as distinct clinical entities in terms of comorbidity and association with psychiatric disorders in Iran is more similar to that of other Asian countries.

Girls With Social and/or Attention Deficits: A Descriptive Study of 100 Clinic Attenders

Girls referred for social and/or attention deficits usually meet diagnostic criteria for either ASD or ADHD, but have severe psychiatric comorbidities and low global levels of functioning.

Using an epidemiological approach to investigate sex differences in the manifestation of ADHD in youth and adulthood

The findings suggest that females’ ADHD symptoms may need to be made more prominent by additional behavioural and emotional problems for them to receive clinical recognition for their ADHD, and that in the absence of prominent externalising problems females may be more easily missed in the ADHD diagnostic process.

ADHD and Female Specific Concerns

  • N. Nussbaum
  • Psychology
    Journal of attention disorders
  • 2012
It is essential that both clinical practice and research be informed by awareness of subtle but important sex differences in presentation and developmental course of ADHD in order to better identify and promote improved quality of care to girls and women with ADHD.

Eating pathology among adolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Baseline impulsivity symptoms, as opposed to hyperactivity and inattention, best predicted adolescent eating pathology, with statistical control of ADHD, and baseline peer rejection and parent- child relationship problems also predicted adolescenteating pathology.

Gender differences in self- and investigator-rated psychopathology in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Male and female ADHD patients seem to be more similar than different regarding ADHD-related psychopathology and general personality traits, suggesting no ADHD-specific effect of gender.

Sex Differences in Substance Use, Prevalence, Pharmacological Therapy, and Mental Health in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Girls with ADHD are more at risk of substance use than boys, and early diagnosis and treatment of ADHD, especially in adolescent girls, is essential to prevent early substance use, the development of SUD, and suicidal behavior.



Influence of gender on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children referred to a psychiatric clinic.

Girls with ADHD were more likely than boys to have the predominantly inattentive type of ADHD, more likely to have a learning disability, and less likely to manifest problems in school or in their spare time, and a statistically significant gender-by-ADHD interaction was identified for comorbid substance use disorders.

Family study of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

The familial transmission of ADHD and comorbid disorders generalizes to families of girls with ADHD, and neither proband gender nor subtype influences the familial transmission.

Conduct problems, gender and adult psychiatric outcome of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Girls with ADHD with conduct problems had a very high risk of a psychiatric admission in adulthood, including gender and comorbidity.

Sex differences in school-aged children with pervasive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Results indicated that the male and female ADHD groups were strikingly similar on all measures of primary (impulsivity, inattention, and overactivity) and secondary (learning problems, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms), and Implications for understanding the long-term outcome of ADHD in girls are discussed.

Preadolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices.

  • S. Hinshaw
  • Psychology
    Journal of consulting and clinical psychology
  • 2002
Girls with ADHD showed dysfunction in terms of externalizing and internalizing behaviors and comorbidities, cognitive and academic performance, authoritarian parenting, and peer status, and the inattentive type was more socially isolated but less rejected by peers than the combined type.

Clinical correlates of ADHD in females: findings from a large group of girls ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric referral sources.

The results of this study extend to girls previous findings in boys indicating that ADHD is characterized by prototypical core symptoms of the disorder, high levels of comorbid psychopathology, and dysfunction in multiple domains.

Gender differences in ADHD: a meta-analysis and critical review.

  • M. GaubC. Carlson
  • Psychology
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • 1997
The need for future research examining gender differences in ADHD is strongly indicated, with attention to methodological limitations of the current literature, including the potential confounding effects of referral bias, comorbidity, developmental patterns, diagnostic procedures, and rater source.

Gender differences among children with DSM-IV ADHD in Australia.

The findings suggest the possibility of gender-specific risks associated with high levels of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms indicating that ADHD subtype membership should be considered when conducting ADHD gender comparisons.

Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

The results show that referred and nonreferred adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a pattern of demographic, psychosocial, psychiatric, and cognitive features that mirrors well-documented findings among children with the disorder.