Attacking pain at its source: new perspectives on opioids

@article{Stein2003AttackingPA,
  title={Attacking pain at its source: new perspectives on opioids},
  author={Christoph Stein and Michael Schaefer and Halina Machelska},
  journal={Nature Medicine},
  year={2003},
  volume={9},
  pages={1003-1008}
}
The treatment of severe pain with opioids has thus far been limited by their unwanted central side effects. Recent research promises new approaches, including opioid analgesics acting outside the central nervous system, targeting of opioid peptide–containing immune cells to peripheral damaged tissue, and gene transfer to enhance opioid production at sites of injury. 

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, no gain : clinical excellence and scientific rigour — lessons learned from IA morphine

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