Attack Abatement: A Model for Group Protection by Combined Avoidance and Dilution

@article{Turner1986AttackAA,
  title={Attack Abatement: A Model for Group Protection by Combined Avoidance and Dilution},
  author={George F. Turner and Tony j. Pitcher},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={1986},
  volume={128},
  pages={228 - 240}
}
An evolutionarily-stable-strategy model for the antipredator advantages of group living in animals is described and termed here the attack-abatement effect. The model considers the possible benefits to the individual of joining or not joining a group and is based on the relative fitnesses of these competing strategies in the same population. It is shown that neither avoidance of contact with the predator nor dilution of the effects of its attack once encountered is advantageous on its own, but… 
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