Attachments beyond infancy.

  title={Attachments beyond infancy.},
  author={Mary D. Salter Ainsworth},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  volume={44 4},
  • M. Ainsworth
  • Published 1989
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The American psychologist
Attachment theory is extended to pertain to developmental changes in the nature of children's attachments to parents and surrogate figures during the years beyond infancy, and to the nature of other affectional bonds throughout the life cycle. Various types of affectional bonds are examined in terms of the behavioral systems characteristic of each and the ways in which these systems interact. Specifically, the following are discussed: (a) the caregiving system that underlies parents' bonds to… Expand
Applications of Attachment Theory to Group Interventions: A Secure Base in Adulthood
Attachment theory is at heart a theory of intimacy. The developmental accomplishment of attachment security depends on a relational context of deep understanding and love between the growing childExpand
Adult Romantic Attachments: A Developmental Perspective on Individual Differences
Attachment theory has, since its inception, contained the proposition that long-term adult romantic relationships (i.e., relationships described by ethologists as “pair bonds”) are generallyExpand
Attachment Theory and Research
Over the last 20 years, attachment theory has fostered considerable theoretical writing and research, with the vast majority of studies concentrating initially on infancy and early childhood. BothExpand
Individual Differences in Adult Attachment Styles and their Connection with Representations of Actual and Ideal Love
This study explores the hypothesis that the nature of children's attachment . relations with parents influences later social and emotional relationships, specifically subsequent close, romantic, loveExpand
The legacy of early attachments.
This essay evaluates what has been learned, and offers ideas for future research, by examining the origins of continuity and change in the security of attachment early in life, and its prediction of later behavior. Expand
Running head: ATTACHMENT AND SOCIAL INTEREST Insecure Attachments: The Effects of Early Infant Experiences on Later Development and Social Interest
  • 2008
Attachment theorists, based on Bowlby’s theory, believe that the dyadic relationship between infant and caregiver is how an infant begins to mentally organize information that guides behavior ofExpand
Hierarchies of Attachment Relationships in Young Adulthood
This study examined the characteristics of attachment hierarchies in young adulthood. Multiple components were used to assess attachment bonds: using the attachment figure as a safe haven in times ofExpand
Childhood Emotional Abuse and the Attachment System Across the Life Cycle: What Theory and Research Tell Us
The purpose of this article is to review the theoretical and empirical literature regarding the normative development of the attachment system from infancy through adulthood, and then discussExpand
Inter-generational relationships at different ages: an attachment perspective
ABSTRACT This study examines the characteristics of parent-child relationships after childhood from a theoretical attachment perspective. It describes how relationships between adult children andExpand
Middle Childhood Attachment Strategies: validation of an observational measure
Results provide preliminary evidence for the psychometric properties of the MCAS in that its behaviorally assessed patterns were associated with theoretically relevant constructs, including maternal warmth/acceptance and psychological control, and children’s social competence, depression, and behavioral problems. Expand


Parents and Peers in Social Development: A Sullivan-Piaget Perspective
Most studies of social development in children have relied on the assumption that adults' instructions to children pass on knowledge of the rules of behavior which govern and preserve society. InExpand
Sibling relations: the role of conceptual perspective-taking in the ontogeny of sibling caregiving
STEWART, ROBERT B., and MARVIN, ROBERT S. Sibling Relations: The Role of Conceptual Perspective-Taking in the Ontogeny of Sibling Caregiving. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1984, 55, 13221332. The behaviors ofExpand
The effect of mandatory protective daycare on mutual attachment in maltreating mother-infants dyads.
It was concluded that mandatory protective daycare had hastened, but not caused, the removal of the children, and this unexpected outcome was explained in terms of attachment theory. Expand
An Ethological—Cognitive Model for the Attenuation of Mother—Child Attachment Behavior
During the past two decades there has been an explosive increase in our knowledge of mother-infant attachment during the first year of life.1 This increase refers not only to the content ofExpand
Reactions of preschool children to an adult stranger: A behavioral systems approach.
GREENBERG, MARK T., and MARVIN, ROBERT S. Reactions of Preschool Children to an Adult Stranger: A Behavioral Systems Approach. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1982, 53, 481-490. 16 children at each of ages 2, 3,Expand
Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation.
We are grateful to the Institute of Human Development, Berkeley, and to the Society for Research in Child Development for funding that made the study of our sample at 6 years possible. In its earlierExpand
Preschoolers' changing conceptions of their mothers: A social‐cognitive study of mother–child attachment
The ability to agree on plans for reunion seems to be instrumental in facilitating comfortable separations between mothers and late-preschool–aged children. This development in patterns of separationExpand
On describing relationships.
  • R. Hinde
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 1976
The nature of inter-individual relationships, how they can be described, and the nature of their stability are discussed briefly. Expand
Attachment and loss: retrospect and prospect.
  • J. Bowlby
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The American journal of orthopsychiatry
  • 1982
An historical sketch of the manner in which evidence has accumulated showing the ill effects of separation, loss, and maternal deprivation during the early years, and of how, in the light of thisExpand
Progress in the Study of Maternal Behavior in the Rat: Hormonal, Nonhormonal, Sensory, and Developmental Aspects
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the progress that has been made in the study of maternal behavior in the rat with special focus on the research that has been carried out at the Institute ofExpand