The attachment of particle-bound IgG in a nonphagocytic system stimulates formation of a microfilament-rich, organelle-poor zone in the subjacent cytoplasm of human neutrophils. The attachment site is characterized by ruffling and invagination of the neutrophil membrane. Both IgG attachment and formation of the organelle-poor zone are inhibited by the microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin-B, but not by inhibitors of microtubules, such as colchicine or vinca alkaloids. In contrast, attachment of particle-bound complement is not inhibited by cytochalasin-B in doses known to disrupt actin filaments. There is no discernable change in the subjacent cytoplasm of the neutrophil in response to complement and the membrane attachment site is smooth, without ruffling or invagination. These studies disclose that both IgG-mediated attachment to neutrophils and its sequel, peripheral cytoplasmic reorganization, are mediated by cytochalasin-sensitive structures, possibly actin. Complement-mediated attachment to neutrophils is insensitive to high doses of cytochalasin, suggesting that actin integrity is not required.