Atrophy of Skeletal Muscle in Chick Embryos Treated with Botulinum Toxin

@article{Drachman1964AtrophyOS,
  title={Atrophy of Skeletal Muscle in Chick Embryos Treated with Botulinum Toxin},
  author={Daniel B. Drachman},
  journal={Science},
  year={1964},
  volume={145},
  pages={719 - 721}
}
Botulinum toxin was given in large intravenous doses to 7- and 12- day chick embryos. Atrophy of skeletal muscle resulted without significant atrophy of other organs. The histological appearance of muscle was consistent with denervation. The results suggest that neural acetylcholine release may play a significant role in "trophic transmission" from nerve to muscle. 
Susceptibility of skeletal muscle to Coxsackie A2 virus infection: effects of botulinum toxin and denervation.
TLDR
Subsequent injection of Coxsackie A2 virus resulted in extensive virus replication and tissue destruction in the denervated and botulinum toxin-treated muscles, while the control muscles showed only minimal changes, which suggests that the susceptibility of skeletal muscle tocoxsackievirus infection is regulated by synaptic transmission.
Nerve implants in botulinum poisoned mammalian muscle
1. In albino rats the botulinum poisoned gastrocnemius muscle was supplied with an accessory motor nerve in order to investigate whether muscle fibres with structurally intact but non‐transmitting
Neural dependence and independence of myotube production in chicken hindlimb muscles.
TLDR
It is concluded that the factors regulating myogenesis change as the muscle matures, and the acquisition of subsequent generations of myotubes was totally inhibited.
Biomedical aspects of Botulinum Toxin
TLDR
Seven immunologically distinct neurotoxins are recognized, which are designated by the letters A through G, which have become an important pharmaceutical for the treatment of segmental movement disorders, spasticity, pain syndromes, and various other neuronal disorders.
Chapter 11 Botulism
TLDR
The cellular mechanisms of BoNTs of activity were elucidated by new techniques and concepts, particularly advanced techniques for imaging tissue, electrophysiological methods, the theory of quantal release of acetylcholine at the synaptic membrane and genetic analyses, and structural analyses of the Bo NTs.
Paralysis and growth of the musculoskeletal system in the embryonic chick
TLDR
Analysis of muscle weight, fiber length and physiological cross‐sectional area indicate that there was greater reduction of the musclesacting on the limbs than of those acting on the mandible, i.e., diminished growth of the skeleton is correlated with reduced muscular activity.
Effects of myotoxins on skeletal muscle fibers
  • M.A.Q. Khan
  • Medicine, Biology
    Progress in Neurobiology
  • 1995
TLDR
The non-invasive experimental models discussed here are valuable in studying various aspects of myopathology in the absence of any mechanical damage to the innervating elements from neurons to axonal terminals.
Temporal relationship of muscle weakness and pain reduction in subjects treated with botulinum toxin A.
  • B. Freund, M. Schwartz
  • Medicine
    The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society
  • 2003
TLDR
This study demonstrates initial muscular relaxation and concomitant pain relief in a masticatory muscle model, which suggests that the analgesic effect attributed to botulinum toxin is more complex than simple muscular relaxation.
Effects of immobilization on the isometric contractile properties of embryonic avian skeletal muscle
TLDR
The results of this study demonstrate that the development of isometric contractile properties of embryonic skeletal muscle is significantly altered by an experimentally induced reduction of spontaneous motor activity.
Regeneration in botulinum-poisoned forelimbs of the newt, Triturus.
TLDR
It is concluded that acetylcholine is not necessary for limb regeneration to occur, and therefore does not fulfill the role of a neurotrophic agent in this situation, but this does not rule out the possibility that ACh may be the sole neurotrophicAgent, or associated with the agent, in other biological systems such as skeletal muscle.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 13 REFERENCES
Method for Continuous Infusion of Fluids into the Chorioallantoic Circulation of the Chick Embryo
TLDR
A method is described for maintaining long term infusions of fluids into the chorioallantoic circulation of the embryo of the domestic fowl, with subsequent hatching.
PARALYSIS OF NERVE INDUCED BY DIRECT PRESSURE AND BY TOURNIQUET
TLDR
The paralysis produced by the application of pressure to human limbs both by the sphygmomanometer cuff and by localized pressure on single nerves had centripetal onset and affected touch before pain and pain before motion.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Case due to disease of the anterior horn cells.
TLDR
The case of a newborn infant with the neural form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is presented partly because of the scarcity of well-studied autopsy material, but especially because the findings may provide a clue to the relationship between central nervous system.
Drachman, unpublished data. 9
  • Science
  • 1962
Pearson
  • Diseases of Muscle
  • 1962
The Denervated Muscle (Publishing
  • House of the Czechoslovakian Acad. of Science,
  • 1962
The Avian Embryo (Macmillan
  • New York,
  • 1960
Lillie's Development of the Chick (Holt
  • New York, rev. ed.,
  • 1952
...
1
2
...