Atrial flutter vector loops derived from the surface ECG: does the plane of the loop correspond anatomically to the macroreentrant circuit?


We hypothesized that if the right atrial circuit during isthmus dependent atrial flutter provides the dominant contribution to the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), the three-dimensional vector loop of the flutter waves would primarily be in a plane approximately parallel to the tricuspid ring. Twenty vectorcardiograms of isthmus dependent atrial flutter… (More)


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