OBJECTIVE To investigate whether atractylenolide Ⅰ (ATL-Ⅰ) has protective effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in vivo and in vitro, and explore whether NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in ATL-Ⅰ treatment. METHODS New Zealand white rabbits were injected with LPS through marginal ear vein over a period of 6 h at a rate of 600 μg/kg (10 mL/h). Similarly, in the treatment groups, 1.0, 2.0, or 5.0 mg/kg ATL-Ⅰ were given. Both survival rate and organ function were tested, including the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urine nitrogen (BUN), and TNF-α were examined by ELISA. Also hemostatic and fibrinolytic parameters in serum were measured. RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were administered with control, LPS, LPS + ATL-Ⅰ and ATL-Ⅰ alone, and TNF-α, phosphorylation (P)-IκBα, phosphorylation (P)-NF-κB (P65) and NF-κB (P65) were determined by Western blot. RESULTS The administration of LPS resulted in 73.3% mortality rate, and the increase of serum TNF-α, BUN and ALT levels. When ATL-Ⅰ treatment significantly increased the survival rate of LPS-induced DIC model, also improved the function of blood coagulation. And protein analysis indicated that ATL-I remarkably protected liver and renal as decreasing TNF-α expression. In vitro, ATL-I obviously decreased LPS-induced TNF-α production and the expression of P-NF-κB (P65), with the decrease of P-IκBα. CONCLUSIONS ATL-Ⅰ has protective effect on LPS-induced DIC, which can elevate the survival rate, reduce organ damage, improve the function of blood coagulation and suppress TNF-α expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.