Among the pharmacotherapeutic interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), psychostimulants have been the drugs of choice for many years. However, some patients do not adequately respond to or cannot tolerate stimulant treatment. Among nonstimulants for ADHD, the most extensively studied and the only one approved for use in the United States is the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. This paper reviews atomoxetine's chemistry and putative mechanism of action, as well as its clinical pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and efficacy and safety in acute clinical trials. (c) 2004 Prous Science. All rights reserved.