Atomic model of the actin filament

@article{Holmes1990AtomicMO,
  title={Atomic model of the actin filament},
  author={Kenneth C. Holmes and David Popp and Werner Gebhard and Wolfgang Kabsch},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1990},
  volume={347},
  pages={44-49}
}
The F-actin filament has been constructed from the atomic structure of the actin monomer to fit the observed X-ray fibre diagram from oriented gels of F-actin. A unique orientation of the monomer with respect to the actin helix has been found. The main interactions are along the two-start helix with a contribution from a loop extending across the filament axis provided by the molecule in the adjacent strand. There are also contacts along the left-handed genetic helix. 
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TLDR
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TLDR
An integrated structural approach which combines intermediate resolution electron microscopy based 3-D reconstruction and surface metal shadowing of crystalline actin tubes with atomic resolution X-ray data of the G-actin monomer is chosen.
A comparison of the atomic model of F-actin with cryo-electron micrographs of actin and decorated actin.
TLDR
The atomic model calculated from the crystal structure and the X-ray fiber diagram of orientated F-actin1) with the 3-D reconstructions produced from cryo-electron microscopy of actin2 are essentially identical.
Structure of gelsolin segment 1-actin complex and the mechanism of filament severing
TLDR
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