Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years

  title={Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years},
  author={Paul N. Pearson and Martin R. Palmer},
Knowledge of the evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations throughout the Earth's history is important for a reconstruction of the links between climate and radiative forcing of the Earth's surface temperatures. Although atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in the early Cenozoic era (about 60 Myr ago) are widely believed to have been higher than at present, there is disagreement regarding the exact carbon dioxide levels, the timing of the decline and the mechanisms that are… 
Coupling of CO2 and Ice Sheet Stability Over Major Climate Transitions of the Last 20 Million Years
B/Ca measurements of planktonic foraminifera are used to estimate pCO2, a powerful greenhouse gas believed to be one of the most important determinants of climate, during major climate transitions of the past 20 million years.
Carbon dioxide and climate over the past 300 Myr
  • G. Retallack
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2002
Large and growing databases on these proxy indicators support the idea that atmospheric CO2 and temperature are coupled, and CO2–temperature uncoupling has been proposed from geological time–series of carbon isotopic composition of palaeosols and of marine phytoplankton compared with foraminifera.
The Global Climate Change over the Cenozoic Considered from the Carbon Cycle
The global carbon cycle controls the climate change in the Earth's environment on a geological timescale and is mainly associated with greenhouse effects produced by atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)
The Relationship between Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Global Temperature for the Last 425 Million Years
  • W. Davis
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2017
Assessing human impacts on climate and biodiversity requires an understanding of the relationship between the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth’s atmosphere and global temperature
Changing atmospheric CO2 concentration was the primary driver of early Cenozoic climate
A new high-fidelity record of CO2 concentrations is generated using the boron isotope (δ11B) composition of well preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Tanzania Drilling Project, revising previous estimates and indicating that a large fraction of the warmth of the early Eocene greenhouse was driven by increasedCO2 concentrations, and that climate sensitivity was relatively constant throughout this period.
Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification
The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of pCO2 and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species.
History of Seawater Carbonate Chemistry, Atmospheric CO 2 , and Ocean Acidification
Humans are continuing to add vast amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere through fossil fuel burning and other activities. A large fraction of the CO2 is taken up by the oceans in a
The impact of Miocene atmospheric carbon dioxide fluctuations on climate and the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems
The authors' data point to a long-term coupling between atmospheric CO2 and climate, which can be linked to major changes in Miocene terrestrial ecosystems, such as the expansion of grasslands and radiations among terrestrial herbivores such as horses.
Impacts of orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide on Miocene ice-sheet expansion
It is surmised that the thermal isolation of Antarctica played a role in providing sustained long-term climatic boundary conditions propitious for ice-sheet formation, and relatively constant, low summer insolation over Antarctica coincident with declining atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at the time of Antarctic ice- sheet expansion and global cooling, suggesting a causal link.


Evidence for a higher pH in the glacial ocean from boron isotopes in foraminifera
RECORDS of past changes in the pH of the oceans should provide insights into how the carbonate chemistry of the oceans has changed over time. The latter is related to changes in the atmospheric CO2
Dissociation of oceanic methane hydrate as a cause of the carbon isotope excursion at the end of the Paleocene
Isotopic records across the “Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum“ (LPTM) indicate that bottom water temperature increased by more than 4°C during a brief time interval (<104 years) of the latest
Foraminiferal boron isotope ratios as a proxy for surface ocean pH over the past 21 Myr
THE pH of the surface ocean is a sensitive function of its alkalinity and total inorganic carbon concentration, properties which also control the partial pressure of atmospheric carbon dioxide17.
The effect of silicate weathering on global temperature and atmospheric CO2
  • P. Brady
  • Environmental Science, Geology
  • 1991
Models of the carbon cycle, used to calculate atmospheric CO2 levels and mean global surface temperatures over geologic time, rely heavily on estimates of CO2 consumed by chemical weathering.
Sulfur isotopic composition of cenozoic seawater sulfate
A comparison between seawater sulfate and marine carbonate carbon isotope records reveals no clear systematic coupling between the sulfur and carbon cycles over one to several millions of years, indicating that changes in the burial rate of pyrite sulfur and organic carbon did not singularly control the atmospheric oxygen content over short time intervals in the Cenozoic.
Miocene evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide
Changes in pCO2 or ocean circulation are generally invoked to explain warm early Miocene climates and a rapid East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) expansion in the middle Miocene. This study reconstructs
Middle eocene seawater pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations
Construction of a pH profile for the middle Eocene tropical Pacific Ocean shows that atmospheric pCO2 was probably similar to modern concentrations or slightly higher.
A study of the radiative effects of enhanced atmospheric CO2 and CH4 on early Earth surface temperatures
Large concentrations of atmospheric CO2 in the atmosphere of the early earth have been proposed as a possible explanation of the apparent absence of frozen earth in spite of a faint early sun.
Possible methane-induced polar warming in the early Eocene
Estimates of Eocene wetland areas are considered and it is suggested that the flux of methane, an important greenhouse gas, may have been substantially greater during the Eocene than at present.
Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in the oceans