Atmospheres of Protoplanetary Cores: Critical Mass for Nucleated Instability

@article{Rafikov2004AtmospheresOP,
  title={Atmospheres of Protoplanetary Cores: Critical Mass for Nucleated Instability},
  author={Roman R. Rafikov},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2004},
  volume={648},
  pages={666-682}
}
  • R. Rafikov
  • Published 2004
  • Physics
  • The Astrophysical Journal
We systematically study quasi-static atmospheres of accreting protoplanetary cores for different opacity behaviors and realistic planetesimal accretion rates in various parts of the protoplanetary nebula. We demonstrate that there are two important classes of atmospheres: (1) those having an outer convective zone that smoothly merges with the surrounding nebular gas, and (2) those possessing an almost isothermal outer radiative region that effectively decouples the atmospheric interior from the… Expand

Figures from this paper

Paper Mentions

Rapid growth of gas-giant cores by pebble accretion
The observed lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary discs place strong constraints on gas and ice giant formation in the core accretion scenario. The approximately 10-Earth-mass solid core responsibleExpand
The Structure of Gas-accreting Protoplanets and the Condition of the Critical Core Mass
In the core accretion model for the formation of gas giant planets, runaway gas accretion onto a core is the primary requisite, triggered when the core mass reaches a critical value. The recentlyExpand
ON THE MINIMUM CORE MASS FOR GIANT PLANET FORMATION AT WIDE SEPARATIONS
In the core accretion hypothesis, giant planets form by gas accretion onto solid protoplanetary cores. The minimum (or critical) core mass to form a gas giant is typically quoted as 10 M ⊕. TheExpand
Super-Earth Atmospheres: Self-Consistent Gas Accretion and Retention
Some recently discovered short-period Earth to Neptune sized exoplanets (super Earths) have low observed mean densities which can only be explained by voluminous gaseous atmospheres. Here, we studyExpand
The imprint of the protoplanetary disc in the accretion of super-Earth envelopes
Super-Earths are by far the most dominant type of exoplanet, yet their formation is still not well understood. In particular, planet formation models predict that many of them should have accretedExpand
EMBRYO IMPACTS AND GAS GIANT MERGERS. I. DICHOTOMY OF JUPITER AND SATURN's CORE MASS
Interior to the gaseous envelopes of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, there are high-density cores with masses larger than 10 Earth masses. According to the conventional sequential accretion hypothesis,Expand
Envelopes of embedded super-Earths – II. Three-dimensional isothermal simulations
Massive planetary cores embedded in protoplanetary discs are believed to accrete extended atmospheres, providing a pathway to forming gas giants and gas-rich super-Earths. The properties of theseExpand
Cooling of Young Stars Growing by Disk Accretion
In the initial formation stages young stars must acquire a significant fraction of their mass by accretion from a circumstellar disk that forms in the center of a collapsing protostellar cloud.Expand
The Formation of Uranus and Neptune: Fine-tuning in Core Accretion
Uranus and Neptune are ice giants with ~15% atmospheres by mass, which places them in a category intermediate between rocky planets and gas giants. These atmospheres are too massive to have beenExpand
Self-gravitating planetary envelopes and the core-nucleated instability
  • W. B'ethune
  • Physics
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • 2019
Planet formation scenarios can be constrained by the ratio of the gaseous envelope mass relative to the solid core mass in the observed exoplanet populations. One-dimensional calculations find aExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES
The Critical Mass for Protoplanets Revisited: Massive Envelopes through Convection
Abstract According to the nucleated instability hypothesis giant planets form by accreting planetesimals onto a core. As the core's gravity increases, gas from the solar nebula is attracted and theExpand
Formation of Giant Planets: Dependences on Core Accretion Rate and Grain Opacity
We have investigated the formation of gaseous envelopes of giant planets with wide ranges of parameters through quasi-static evolutionary simulations. In the nucleated instability model, rapid gasExpand
Fast Accretion of Small Planetesimals by Protoplanetary Cores
We explore the dynamics of small planetesimals coexisting with massive protoplanetary cores in a gaseous nebula. Gas drag strongly affects the motion of small bodies, leading to the decay of theirExpand
Formation of Giant Planets in Dense Nebulae: Critical Core Mass Revisited
The formation of giant planets is explained by the nucleated instability model, in which a solid core captures a large amount of nebular gas when it grows to critical core mass. It is well known thatExpand
Formation of the Giant Planets
The structure of a gaseous envelope surrounding a protoplanet has been investigated in connection with the formation of the giant planets. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and hydrostaticExpand
Formation of gas giant planets: core accretion models with fragmentation and planetary envelope
Abstract We have calculated formation of gas giant planets based on the standard core accretion model including effects of fragmentation and planetary envelope. The accretion process is found toExpand
Formation of the giant planets
Observational constraints on interior models of the giant planets indicate that these planets were all much hotter when they formed and they all have rock and/or ice cores of ten to thirty earthExpand
ORBITAL MIGRATION AND MASS ACCRETION OF PROTOPLANETS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL GLOBAL COMPUTATIONS WITH NESTED GRIDS
We investigate the evolution of protoplanets with different masses embedded in an accretion disk, via global fully three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We consider a range of planetaryExpand
Enhanced collisional growth of a protoplanet that has an atmosphere
Once a protoplanet becomes larger than about lunar size, it accumulates a significant atmosphere that surrounds the solid core. When a planetesimal approaches the protoplanet, it interacts with theExpand
Hydrodynamic instability of the solar nebula in the presence of a planetary core
Abstract When a planetary core composed of condensed matter is accumulated in the primitive solar nebula, the gas of the nebula becomes gravitationally concentrated as an envelope surrounding theExpand
...
1
2
3
4
...