PURPOSE To assess technical success rates and long-term clinical outcomes of primary renal arterial stent placement in atherosclerotic renal arterial stenosis (RAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Primary stent placement was performed in 100 consecutive patients with atherosclerotic RAS. Indications for treatment were resistant hypertension (n = 25), impaired renal function, (n = 50), and both (n = 25). Immediate technical results were evaluated with angiography. Clinical outcomes were assessed with serial systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum creatinine values obtained from retrospective review of case notes. Results obtained every 6 months after the procedure were compared with those obtained at the time of the procedure with the paired t test. Radiologic reports were evaluated for immediate and case notes for delayed complications. RESULTS Technical success was achieved in 120 (95.2%) of 126 RAS in 95 patients. Mean follow-up was 25 months (median, 24 months; range, 1-66 months). Resistant hypertension was cured in two (4.2%) of 48 patients, had improved in 38 (79.1%), and had failed to respond to treatment in eight (16.7%). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months (P <.01) than before the procedure. Among 65 patients treated for renal impairment, renal function improved in 20 (30.8%), stabilized in 25 (41.7%), and continued to deteriorate in 20 (30.8%). The mean serum creatinine level did not show significant change with time for this group. In the improved subgroup, it was significantly higher at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 42 months (P <.05) than prior to the procedure. Procedure-related complications occurred in 18 (18%) cases: Ten were minor and self-limiting and eight were major and included two procedure-related deaths. CONCLUSION In atherosclerotic RAS, primary stent deployment has a high technical success rate, producing clinical benefits in the majority of patients when performed for resistant hypertension and recovery of renal function.