At the Origin of the History of Glia

  title={At the Origin of the History of Glia},
  author={Xue Fan and Yves Agid},
The history of brain science is dominated by the study of neurons. However, there are as many glial cells as neurons in the human brain, their complexity increases during evolution, and glial cells play important roles in brain function, behavior, and neurological disorders. Although neurons and glial cells were first described at the same time in the early 19th century, why did the physiological study of glial cells only begin in the 1950s? What are the scientific breakthroughs and conceptual… Expand
Emerging technologies to study glial cells
The potency of several cutting‐edge experimental approaches (advanced cell cultures, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)‐derived human glial cells, viral vectors, in situ glia imaging, opto‐ and chemogenetic approaches, and high‐content molecular analysis) to unravel the role of glial cell types in specific brain functions or diseases are illustrated. Expand
Quantitative, structural and molecular changes in neuroglia of aging mammals: A review
  • E. Pannese
  • Medicine
  • European journal of histochemistry : EJH
  • 2021
Since neuroglia actively participate in numerous nervous system processes, it is likely that not only neurons but also neuroglio will prove to be useful targets for interventions to prevent, reverse or slow the behavioral changes and cognitive decline that often accompany senescence. Expand
Cell type-specific circular RNA expression in human glial cells.
This study found 265, 239 and 442 circRNAs comprising the unique circular transcriptome of astrocytes, microglia and oligodendroCytes, respectively, suggesting spliceosome activity favorable to the back-splicing mechanism instead of canonical splicing activity. Expand
Glial Cells and Their Contribution to the Mechanisms of Action of Cannabidiol in Neuropsychiatric Disorders
The currently available evidence suggesting that part of the CBD effects are mediated by interference with glial cell function is discussed, and additional studies that need to be performed are proposed to unveil the contribution of glial cells to CBD effects in neuropsychiatric disorders. Expand
The mechanisms of GABAergic signalling in the peripheral pain pathway
Peripheral pain pathway plays a crucial role in how pain is perceived and felt. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) which house the primary sensory neurons have become the focus of many emerging painExpand


The search for true numbers of neurons and glial cells in the human brain: A review of 150 years of cell counting
A survey of original evidence shows that histological data always supported a 1:1 ratio of glia to neurons in the entire human brain, and a range of 40–130 billion glial cells, and the current status of knowledge about the number of cells is reviewed. Expand
The glia/neuron ratio: How it varies uniformly across brain structures and species and what that means for brain physiology and evolution
Variations in the glia/neuron ratio are proposed to be related not to the supposed larger metabolic cost of larger neurons (given that this cost is not found to vary with neuronal density), but simply to the large variation in neuronal sizes across brain structures and species in the face of less overall variation in glial cell sizes. Expand
The history of radial glia
The existence of radially arranged glial processes along which young neurons migrate was finally ascertained in the early 1970s by Pasko Rakic, thus opening a new era in the cellular and molecular biology of radial glia. Expand
Evolving Concepts of Gliogenesis: A Look Way Back and Ahead to the Next 25 Years
It is proposed that delineating genetic and developmental programs across species will be essential to understand the core functions of glia that allow enhanced neuronal function and to achieve new insights into glial roles in higher-order brain function and neurological disease. Expand
Chapter 19 Cajal and glial cells
Although the insulating theory of Cajal on glia was limited, and even though other metabolic and signaling functions of glial cells are known, his basic idea on glial function is still valid. Expand
Extending the neuron doctrine: Carl Ludwig Schleich (1859–1922) and his reflections on neuroglia at the inception of the neural-network concept in 1894
  • S. Dierig
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Trends in Neurosciences
  • 1994
New insights in glial physiology and glia-neuron interactions increasingly force a radical revision of this view, and some neurobiologists even profess a dynamic and active role for glial cells in the function of the nervous system. Expand
The Origin of the Term Plasticity in the Neurosciences: Ernesto Lugaro and Chemical Synaptic Transmission
  • G. Berlucchi
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 2002
The Italian psychiatrist Ernesto Lugaro can be regarded as responsible for introducing the term plasticity into the neurosciences as early as 1906. By this term he meant that throughout life theExpand
Microglia: New Roles for the Synaptic Stripper
Evidence is summarized that molecular pathways characterized in pathology are also utilized by microglia in the normal and developing brain to influence synaptic development and connectivity, and therefore should become targets of future research. Expand
Integrated brain circuits: astrocytic networks modulate neuronal activity and behavior.
Cell type-specific molecular genetics has allowed a new level of examination of the function of astrocytes in brain function and has revealed an important role of these glial cells that is mediated by adenosine accumulation in the control of sleep and in cognitive impairments that follow sleep deprivation. Expand
Cajal's contributions to glia research
This research includes original drawings of astrocytes, oligodendrocyte, microglia and radial glia, as well as his scientific writings, to show that Cajal was far ahead of his time on glial cells. Expand