At high speeds dolphins save energy by leaping

  title={At high speeds dolphins save energy by leaping},
  author={D. Au and Donna Weihs},
An observer may wonder whether a school of ‘running’ dolphins, consisting of numerous, wildly splashing individuals, is using the most efficient mode of locomotion, because splashing wastes energy. Dolphins exhibit at least three modes of swimming. In leisurely, unhurried motion, they break the surface briefly and gently, often showing little more than the blowhole. At a faster, ‘cruising’ speed, frequently at 3–3.5 ms−1 (6–7 knots), the animals are seen swimming primarily just beneath the… 
Dynamics of Dolphin Porpoising Revisited1
  • D. Weihs
  • Physics
    Integrative and comparative biology
  • 2002
The possibility of dolphins using a combination of leaping and burst and coast swimming is examined, and a three-phase model is proposed, in which the dolphin leaps out of the water at a speed Uf, which is the final speed obtained at the end of the burst phase of burst and coasts swimming.
Travel at low energetic cost by swimming and wave-riding bottlenose dolphins
The results indicate that behavioural, physiological and morphological factors make swimming an economical form of high-speed travel for dolphins.
Dolphin swimming–a review
into dolphin swimming has historically been guided by false assumptions of 'effortless', 'high-speed' swimming. These assumptions have instigated the develop- ment of drag-reduction hypotheses but
Energetics of leaping in dolphins and other aquatic animals
  • R. Blake
  • Environmental Science, Physics
    Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • 1983
The energetics of leaping (porpoising) in aquatic animals is investigated employing two simple hydromechanical models. The first compares the energy required for swimming at different depths below
Hydroplaning by ducklings: overcoming limitations to swimming at the water surface
Rapid escape behavior by mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings is restricted to burst swimming at the water surface. Maximum speed may be limited because of the pattern of waves created as the
Development of a Fast-Swimming Dolphin Robot Capable of Leaping
The minimum exit speed that allows the dolphin to completely leap out of the water is estimated, a robotic prototype intended for leap motions is created, and for the first time, a self-contained leaping dolphin robot with commercially available actuators and power supply is built.
Oceanic squid do fly
It is demonstrated that flight of squid is not simple gliding after incidental exit from the water, but involves jet propulsion, generation of lift force and control of different body postures in different flight phases, which have evolved to enhance escape from predators.
Dynamics of the aerial maneuvers of spinner dolphins
A mathematical model was developed that demonstrates that angular momentum to induce the spin was generated underwater, prior to the leap, and indicates that the high rotation rates and orientation of the dolphin's body during re-entry into the water could produce enough force to hydrodynamically dislodge unwanted remoras.


Hydrodynamic Performance of Porpoises (Stenella attenuata)
Two specimens of Stenella attenuata, trained to chase a winchtowed lure, reached a top speed of 11.03 meters per second (21.4 knots) in 2.0 seconds, and the maximum power output per unit body weight was 50 percent greater than for human athletes.