- Published 2017 in Physical review. E

In this paper, we discuss P(n), the number of ways a given integer n may be written as a sum of primes. In particular, an asymptotic form P_{as}(n) valid for n→∞ is obtained analytically using standard techniques of quantum statistical mechanics. First, the bosonic partition function of primes, or the generating function of unrestricted prime partitions in number theory, is constructed. Next, the density of states is obtained using the saddle-point method for Laplace inversion of the partition function in the limit of large n. This gives directly the asymptotic number of prime partitions P_{as}(n). The leading term in the asymptotic expression grows exponentially as sqrt[n/ln(n)] and agrees with previous estimates. We calculate the next-to-leading-order term in the exponent, proportional to ln[ln(n)]/ln(n), and we show that an earlier result in the literature for its coefficient is incorrect. Furthermore, we also calculate the next higher-order correction, proportional to 1/ln(n) and given in Eq. (43), which so far has not been available in the literature. Finally, we compare our analytical results with the exact numerical values of P(n) up to n∼8×10^{6}. For the highest values, the remaining error between the exact P(n) and our P_{as}(n) is only about half of that obtained with the leading-order approximation. But we also show that, unlike for other types of partitions, the asymptotic limit for the prime partitions is still quite far from being reached even for n∼10^{7}.

@article{Bartel2017AsymptoticPP,
title={Asymptotic prime partitions of integers.},
author={J. Bartel and Rajat K. Bhaduri and Matthias Brack and M . V . N . Murthy},
journal={Physical review. E},
year={2017},
volume={95 5-1},
pages={052108}
}