Evidence Informing the Intersection of HIV, Aging and Health: A Scoping Review
BACKGROUND Asymptomatic ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in HIV-infected patients has not been studied. METHODS Resting, 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) were evaluated for asymptomatic IHD (Q-wave and/or ST segment depression) at baseline from HIV-infected participants with no known IHD enrolling in the SMART study. The ECG recordings were standardized and centrally analysed. Factors associated with asymptomatic IHD were identified by logistic regression, sequentially adjusted for demographics, clinical history, metabolic risk factors and type and duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART). RESULTS Of 4831 participants with an evaluable, baseline ECG and no prior IHD, mean age was 44 years (SD, 9.3); 28.4% were female; 6.6% had diabetes; 16.5% were receiving antihypertensive therapy; and 95.4% were ART experienced. ECG evidence of IHD was detected in 526 (10.9%) [Q-wave in 283 (5.9%), ST segment depression in 264 (5.5%)]; 16.7% in those 60 years or older. Variables independently associated with these abnormalities were older age [age > or= 60 versus < 40 years: odds ratio (OR), 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-3.2; P < 0.001], current antihypertensive therapy (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9; P = 0.003) and recruitment in Europe (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7; P = 0.004) or Asia (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.6; P = 0.05), both compared with North America. Diabetes was borderline significant (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS ECG evidence of asymptomatic IHD was common in this large cohort of HIV-infected adults and more common than a history of symptomatic IHD. Traditional factors were the predominant determinants of risk. No clear association between ART type or duration and asymptomatic IHD was noted.