Associative learning in degenerative neostriatal disorders: Contrasts in explicit and implicit remembering between Parkinson's and huntington's diseases

  title={Associative learning in degenerative neostriatal disorders: Contrasts in explicit and implicit remembering between Parkinson's and huntington's diseases},
  author={Reiner Sprengelmeyer and A. G. M. Canavan and Herwig W. Lange and Volker H{\"o}mberg},
  journal={Movement Disorders},
The performances of 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 16 with Huntington's disease (HD), and young and old healthy controls were assessed on a number of tests of verbal and nonverbal declarative memory, on a test of nonmotor conditional associative learning (words and colors), and on a number of reaction time (RT) tasks. The RT tasks consisted of cued simple and choice reactions. The relationship between the precue and the imperative stimulus in the S1–S2 paradigm was nonarbitrary in… 

Executive and mnemonic functions in early Huntington's disease.

Patients with early Huntington's disease were found to have a wide range of cognitive impairments encompassing both visuospatial memory and executive functions, a pattern distinct from those seen in other basal ganglia disorders.

Advanced Parkinson's disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

Findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature, the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum and that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent.

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Neuropsychological investigations of patients with Parkinson’s disease have shown specific impairments even in the early stages of the disease, which include deficit of behavioural regulation in sorting or planning tasks, defective use of memory stores, and impaired manipulation of internal representation of visuospatial stimuli, suggesting a functional continuity or complementarity between the basal ganglia and association areas of the prefrontal cortex.

Motor learning by imagery is differentially affected in Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases

The time course of spatial and object learning in Parkinson's disease

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It is suggested that mild-to-moderate PD patients may show relatively preserved recollection and familiarity, but that recollection is selectively disrupted by PPX, but not RPR and that this effect may depend on disrupted hippocampal function rather than impaired pre-frontally dependent executive functions.

The cognitive and motor deficits of Parkinson's disease

It appears that patients with PD may have a deficit similar to that induced by the experimental manipulation - that is, an inability to attend to all dimensions present when hypothesis testing after an ED shift.

Conditional Associative Learning of Spatial and Object Information in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

The results of this study suggest that ADHD does not produce a basic deficit in acquiring stimulus-response associations previously shown to be associated with basal ganglia dysfunction and that the impaired conditional associative learning performance of children with ADHD is attributable to deficits in strategic processes previously been found to be dependent upon the integrity of the prefrontal cortex.



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The results for the PD patients suggest that the demented PD patients have endured damage to the neurologic systems subserving both motor learning and lexical priming.

Procedural memory in Parkinson's disease: impaired motor but not visuoperceptual learning.

The results showed that PD patients were not impaired on mirror reading or paired associate learning, and the underlying processes/procedures for procedural learning are specific to the task, and are supported by different neuroanatomical systems.

Procedural learning and neostriatal dysfunction in man.

Patients with early stage Parkinson's disease are shown to be selectively impaired in a cognitive task of procedural learning while remaining intact in recall and recognition tests of declarative memory, thus demonstrating a double dissociation.

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The utility of the comparison between DAT and PD in characterizing the nature of the cognitive deficits in these conditions and their relation to those findings from animal neuropsychology which use comparable paradigms are discussed.


There is a danger, however, that the effort to fit the patterns of functional association and dissociation into a neuroanatomical framework may be premature, and the concept of a unified procedural system in favour of parallel, independent systems, only some of which involve the striatum.

Differential patterns of memory loss among patients with Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome.

Patients with Huntington's disease (HD), alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) were compared with normal control subjects on a task designed to assess recognition memory

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The results suggest that different areas of prefrontal cortex are involved in the tasks employed, and that functional levels of dopamine in separate areas of cortex and caudate may differ crucially in Parkinson's disease.

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The present experiment was designed to test two fundamental aspects of spatial ability, namely right-left discrimination and the manipulation of those concepts in different spatial perspectives, and gave support to the idea of a generalized visuospatial deficit in Parkinson's disease.