Associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a pooled analysis of data from four studies

@article{Mente2016AssociationsOU,
  title={Associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a pooled analysis of data from four studies},
  author={Andrew Mente and Martin O’Donnell and Sumathy Rangarajan and Gilles R. Dagenais and Scott A. Lear and Matthew B. McQueen and Rafael Diaz and Alvaro Avezum and Patricio L{\'o}pez-Jaramillo and Fernando Lanas and Wei Li and Yin Lu and Sun Yi and Lei Rensheng and Romaina Iqbal and Prem K Mony and Rita Yusuf and Khalid Yusoff and Andrzej Szuba and Aytekin Oguz and Annika Rosengren and Ahmad Bahonar and Afzal Hussein Yusufali and Aletta Elisabeth Schutte and Jephat Chifamba and JohannesF. E. Mann and Sonia S. Anand and Koon Teo and Salim Yusuf},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2016},
  volume={388},
  pages={465-475}
}
The optimal amount of salt intake
TLDR
It seems difficult to determine the optimal amount of salt intake, but a strategy of sodium reduction would be appropriate in communities in which people prefer to season their food with salt.
Joint association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with cardiovascular events and mortality: prospective cohort study
TLDR
It is suggested that the simultaneous target of low sodium intake (<2 g/day) with high potassium intake (>3.5 g/ day) is extremely uncommon, and combined moderate sodium intake (3-5 g / day) withhigh potassium intake is associated with the lowest risk of mortality and cardiovascular events.
Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Among 398 628 Individuals in UK Biobank
TLDR
The findings do not support a J-shaped association of estimated sodium excretion with CVD, although such an association was apparent for all-cause and cause-specific mortality across a wide range of diseases.
Association of Urinary Sodium Excretion and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study
TLDR
It is indicated that high urinary sodium excretion was independently associated with increased risk of LVH and CVD in patients with T2DM, suggesting that control of sodium intake may be valuable for the prevention of diabetic cardiovascular complications.
Associations of 24-Hour Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion with Cardiac Biomarkers: The Maastricht Study.
TLDR
It is suggested that cardiac dysfunction and/or cardiomyocyte injury may underlie previously reported associations of lower potassium intake with CVD mortality and recommendations to increase potassium intake in the general population are supported.
Associations of estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion with mortality and cardiovascular events in Chinese adults: a prospective cohort study
TLDR
Findings support a positive association between estimated urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure, and a possible J-shaped pattern of association between sodium excrete and clinical outcomes, with the lowest risk in participants with Sodium excretion between 3 and 5 g/day.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 64 REFERENCES
Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events.
TLDR
An estimated sodium intake between 3g per day and 6 g per day was associated with a lower risk of death and cardiovascular events than was either a higher or lower estimated level of intake.
Sodium Excretion and Risk of Developing Coronary Heart Disease
TLDR
There was no association between sodium excretion and risk of CHD in the overall population and in potentially more susceptible subgroups, and the association was modified by NT-proBNP.
Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events.
TLDR
The precise relationship between sodium and potassium intake and cardiovascular (CV) risk remains uncertain, especially in patients with CV disease or diabetes mellitus, and Cox proportional hazards multivariable models were used to determine the association.
The Association Between Dietary Sodium Intake, ESRD, and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes
TLDR
In patients with type 1 diabetes, sodium was independently associated with all-cause mortality and ESRD, and these findings support the calls for caution before applying salt restriction universally.
Fatal and nonfatal outcomes, incidence of hypertension, and blood pressure changes in relation to urinary sodium excretion.
TLDR
In this population-based cohort, systolic blood pressure, but not diastolic pressure, changes over time aligned with change in sodium excretion, but this association did not translate into a higher risk of hypertension or CVD complications.
Global sodium consumption and death from cardiovascular causes.
TLDR
The rate of death from cardiovascular causes associated with sodium intake above the reference level was highest in the country of Georgia and lowest in Kenya, and the cardiovascular effects of current sodium intake, as compared with a reference intake of 2.0 g per day were estimated.
Association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure.
TLDR
The association of estimated intake of sodium and potassium, as determined from measurements of excretion of these cations, with blood pressure was nonlinear and was most pronounced in persons consuming high-sodium diets, persons with hypertension, and older persons.
Dietary Salt Intake and Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
TLDR
In patients with type 2 diabetes, lower 24-h urinary sodium excretion was paradoxically associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...