Associations of Depression With C-Reactive Protein, IL-1, and IL-6: A Meta-Analysis

@article{Howren2009AssociationsOD,
  title={Associations of Depression With C-Reactive Protein, IL-1, and IL-6: A Meta-Analysis},
  author={M. Bryant Howren and Donald M. Lamkin and Jerry M Suls},
  journal={Psychosomatic Medicine},
  year={2009},
  volume={71},
  pages={171-186}
}
Objective: To assess the magnitude and direction of associations of depression with C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6 in community and clinical samples. Methods: Systematic review of articles published between January 1967 and January 2008 in the PubMed and PsycINFO electronic databases was performed. Effect sizes were calculated as stat d and meta-analyzed, using random-effects models. Results: Each inflammatory marker was positively associated with depression; CRP, d = 0… 

Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and interleukin-10 after antidepressant treatment in people with depression: a meta-analysis

There may be a normalization of overactive inflammatory processes following antidepressant treatment, according to a meta-analysis of studies which reported circulating levels of inflammatory markers before and after antidepressant treatment for people with depression.

Association of Genes for Proinflammatory Cytokines and Depression

The role of the clinical polymorphism of depression makes it difficult to form homogeneous cohorts and to select phenotypes for biological studies and these data confirm the role of immune factors in the development of depression.

Associations of number and severity of depressive episodes with C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6.

CRP, IL-6 and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

Cumulative meta-analysis of interleukins 6 and 1 beta , tumour necrosis factor alpha and C-reactive protein in patients with major depressive disorder

This cumulative meta-analysis confirmed higher mean levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with major depression compared to non-depressed controls and no consistent association between tumour necrosis factor-a, interleukain-1b and major depression was observed.

Mild depressive symptoms are associated with elevated C-reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokine levels during early to midgestation: a prospective pilot study.

These pilot data suggest that depressive symptoms may be associated with inflammatory markers during early to-midgestation, and the association between depressive symptoms at 7-10 weeks of gestation and increased IL-6 levels at 16-20 Weeks of gestation approached statistical significance.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 179 REFERENCES

Relationship Between Depression and C-Reactive Protein in a Screening Population

Depressive symptoms are only weakly correlated with CRP, and the relationship between depression and clinical coronary disease is unlikely to be explained through direct effects on CRP levels, but may be mediated by BMI.

Inflammatory proteins and depression in the elderly.

Interleukin-6 levels were strongly increased in some subjects with depressive disorders, possibly indicating a specific immunologic process, however, the associations of acute phase proteins with depression in this population-based study could be explained by confounding.

The association between major depression and levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein in patients with recent acute coronary syndromes.

Results suggest chronic endothelial activation among depressed patients after acute coronary syndromes, and further research is needed to determine whether or not higher levels of sICAM-1 may identify a subgroup of depressed patients at particularly high risk for cardiac events among patients with established coronary artery disease or among those without previous coronary arteries disease.

Association Between Depression and Elevated C-Reactive Protein

A recent history of major depressive episode is strongly associated with elevated CRP in men aged 17 to 39, and this group, low-grade systemic inflammation could represent a mechanism linking depression to cardiovascular risk.

Inflammatory markers and depressed mood in older persons: results from the health, aging and body composition study

Plasma Concentrations of Interleukin-1β, Interleukin-6, Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor and Tumor Necrosis Factor α of Depressed Patients in Japan

It is suggested that the plasma sIL-2R concentration is associated with mood state, and that the Plasma TNF-α concentration is increased after pharmacotherapy in Japanese depressed patients.

Depressive symptoms and C-reactive protein: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

Higher levels of depressive symptoms are associated with higher levels of CRP, but this association may largely be attributable to obesity or triglycerides.
...