PURPOSE The aim of the study was to identify associations between organizational injustice and work ability, disability days, and consultations with general practitioners. METHODS Cross-sectional data of persons previously receiving sickness absence benefits were used for analyses. Organizational injustice was assessed using a German version of the "organizational justice questionnaire". Dependent variables were the Work Ability Index, self-reported disability days, and consultations with general practitioners. Associations were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral health risks, neuroticism, effort-reward imbalance, and overcommitment. RESULTS The analysis included 2983 employed persons (54.1% women, mean age: 47.9 years). High organizational injustice was associated with poor work ability (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.55-2.69). There were also slight associations with frequent self-reported disability days (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.68). The dependent variables were also associated with the effort-reward ratio and overcommitment. CONCLUSION Organizational injustice is associated with work ability, self-reported disability days, and health-care utilization. Results support the notion of a complementary role of the models of organizational justice and effort-reward imbalance.