Associations between COPD related manifestations: a cross-sectional study


BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and emphysema are associated with COPD. Associations between these factors and whether they predict all-cause mortality in COPD patients are not well understood. Therefore, we examined associations between markers of cardiovascular disease (coronary artery calcification [CAC], thoracic aortic calcification… (More)
DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-14-129


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