Genetics of primary ovarian insufficiency: new developments and opportunities
STUDY QUESTION Are the genetic polymorphisms of the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor (AMHR2) genes associated with idiopathic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in a Korean population? SUMMARY ANSWER The distribution of the AMH and the AMHR2 polymorphisms in a Korean POI population was not significantly different from controls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY AMH plays an important role in regulating both the primordial follicle recruitment and the cyclic selection of the antral follicles. The AMHR2 -482A>G polymorphism was associated with an earlier menopause and nulliparous women with the GG genotype had a 2.6 years earlier onset of menopause compared with the AA genotype women. Therefore, genetic variants in the AMH signal transduction pathway might affect the ovarian function of women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Case-control study. The subjects consisted of 211 idiopathic POI patients and 233 post-menopausal controls. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The frequency of the AMH Ile(49)Ser and AMHR2 -482A>G polymorphisms was analyzed in 211 patients with idiopathic POI and in 233 post-menopausal controls, and we also analyzed clinical characteristics, such as age at the time of POI and LH, FSH as well as estradiol levels according to the specific genotype. Genotyping for the AMH Ile(49)Ser and the AMHR2 -482A>G polymorphisms was performed by a minor groove binder primer/probe Taqman assay. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The genotype distributions and allele frequencies for the AMH Ile(49)Ser and the AMHR2 -482A>G polymorphisms were similar between the POI patients and the controls. Within POI population, the AMH Ile(49)Ser and the AMHR2 -482A>G polymorphisms were not associated with age at the time of POI and LH, FSH as well as estradiol levels. Haplotype analysis also showed no significant difference between groups. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Study is limited to a Korean population. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Our findings suggest that genetic variants in the AMH signal transduction pathway may not influence the susceptibility of idiopathic POI. This is the first report on the association between the AMH and AMHR2 polymorphisms and idiopathic POI. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) No conflict of interest exists. This study was supported by a grant of Seoul National University Hospital Research Fund (04-2011-0870). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER N/A.