OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and hyperuricemia with macrovascular atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS Ninety-seven type 2 diabetic patients were divided into two groups according to the UAER, namely group A with UAER between 20 and 200 microg/min (n=63) and group B with UAER > or = 200 microg/min (n=34); the patients were also classified into hyperuricemia group (group C, n=59) and normal blood uric acid (BUA) group (group D, n=38). The disease course, BUA, fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), UAER and arteria carotis intima-media thickness (IMT) were determined in these patients. The relationship of UAER and hyperuricemia with carotid arterial IMT was analyzed statistically. RESULTS The levels of TG, TC, LDL and HDL showed no significant differences between the 4 groups (P>0.05). The disease course, BUA, UAER, and FBG levels and IMT in groups A and C were significantly higher than those in groups C and D (P<0.05), but no such differences were found between groups A and C or between groups B and D (P>0.05). Arotid arterial IMT was independently correlated to the disease course, BUA and UAER (r=0.201, 0.1999, 0.211, respectively, P<0.05), and a significant positive correlation was noted between BUA and UAER (r=0.221, P<0.05). CONCLUSION Macrovascular atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients is significantly correlated to the disease course, BUA and UAER levels, which can be used to evaluate and predict macrovascular atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients.