Association of smoking and nicotine dependence with severity and course of symptoms in patients with depressive or anxiety disorder.

@article{Jamal2012AssociationOS,
  title={Association of smoking and nicotine dependence with severity and course of symptoms in patients with depressive or anxiety disorder.},
  author={Mumtaz Jamal and A J Willem Van der Does and Pim Cuijpers and Brenda W. J. H. Penninx},
  journal={Drug and alcohol dependence},
  year={2012},
  volume={126 1-2},
  pages={138-46}
}
BACKGROUND Previous research has indicated a strong association of smoking with depression and anxiety disorders, but the direction of the relationship is uncertain. Most research has been done in general population samples. We investigated the effect of smoking and nicotine dependence on the severity and course of depressive and anxiety symptoms in psychiatric patients. METHODS Data came from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) including participants with a current… CONTINUE READING