Association of iron‐containing astrocytes with dopaminergic neurons of the arcuate nucleus

  title={Association of iron‐containing astrocytes with dopaminergic neurons of the arcuate nucleus},
  author={J. K. Young and James C. McKenzie and John H. Baker},
  journal={Journal of Neuroscience Research},
Specialized astrocytes, identified by cytoplasmic granules that are electron‐dense and vividly stained by toluidine blue due to the presence in the granules of SH molecules and molecules of iron, have long been known to be present within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Their function, however, is obscure. To determine whether or not these specialized astrocytes are in contact with dopaminergic neurons, rat brain sections were stained to detect tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive… 
Gomori‐positive astrocytes: Biological properties and implications for neurologic and neuroendocrine disorders
Gomori‐positive astrocytes may supply heme to neurons for the synthesis of cytochromes, catalases, and other heme enzymes, and play a role in photostimulation of sexual cyclicity, the promotion of neuritic development, the degradation of toxic lipoperoxides, and the metabolism of various neurotransmitters.
GLUT2 Immunoreactivity in Gomori-positive Astrocytes of the Hypothalamus
  • John K. Young, J. McKenzie
  • Biology
    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • 2004
The possibility that Gomori-positive astrocytes may have an important influence upon the reactivity of the hypothalamus to glucose and that a specialized glucose metabolism may in part underlie the development of mitochondrial abnormalities in hypothalamic GP astroCytes is supported.
Glial immunoreactivity for metallothionein in the rat brain
A series of frozen and vibratome coronal sections of the rat brain were examined by immunocytochemistry for the presence of a cysteine‐rich metal binding protein, metallothionein, which represented a subset of MT‐positive astrocytes that may be involved in reactions to blood‐borne metal compounds that penetrate into circumventricular organs of the brain.
A Cellular Stress Model for the Sequestration of Redox‐Active Glial Iron in the Aging and Degenerating Nervous System
The results of this study suggest that stress‐related trapping of nonheme iron by astroglial mitochondria may be an important mechanism underlying the pathological accumulation of redox‐active iron in the basal ganglia of subjects with Parkinson's disease.
Copper accumulation in rodent brain astrocytes: A species difference.
Immunoreactivity for brain‐fatty acid binding protein in gomori‐positive astrocytes
Gomori‐positive (GP) astrocytes are a subset of brain astro cytoplasmic granules that arise from the degradation of mitochondria that can be detected in the olfactory bulbs, hippocampus, habenula, and other selected brain regions.
The brain response to 2-deoxy glucose is blocked by a glial drug
Neurogenesis Makes a Crucial Contribution to the Neuropathology of Alzheimer’s Disease
  • John K. Young
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease reports
  • 2020
Retrograde degeneration of neurons with axons terminating in the dentate gyrus provides a likely explanation for the spatial patterns of neuronal cell death seen in AD.


Histoenzymological characteristics of endogenous DAB-positive granules include presence of a “pseudoperoxidase” (hemoglobin-like peroxidases) and a native organelle in the astrocyte itself and their activity, however, exhibits a 6.5 to 7.6 optimal pH and is inhibited with KCN, CuSO4 and HIO4-NaBH4.
Effect of surgical trauma on the endogeneous heme iron in the brain.
Electorn-microscopic findings were highly characteristic and distinguished the macrophages from the surrounding neural elements by their rich content of electron-dense granules, and the uptake of hemoglobin and its subsequent conversion of ferritin within the Macrophages and astrocytic processes are discussed at subcellular level.
Rat medulla oblongata. II. Dopaminergic, noradrenergic (A1 and A2) and adrenergic neurons, nerve fibers, and presumptive terminal processes
The immunoperoxidase method of Sternberger ('79) was used to demonstrate the location of immunoreactive neurons, nerve fibers, and presumptive terminal processes in the caudal medulla oblongata of the rat.
Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons throughout the hypothalamus receive glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactive synapses: a double pre- embedding immunocytochemical study with particulate silver and HRP
Silver intensification of colloidal silver and of peroxidase reaction product showed promise for combined LM and EM double-immunolabeling studies and double immunocytochemical staining of two different neurotransmitter-related antigens allowed examination with both light and electron microscopy.
Ovary-dependent degeneration in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.
The fact that monthly injections of estradiol valerate in male rats produced the same profile of degeneration in the arcuate nucleus suggests that the neuropathological agent may itself be estradio, which may be capable of gradually producing an arcuate lesion.