Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Associated Risk Factors among 34,111 HAART Naïve HIV-Infected Adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
BACKGROUND There are few studies from Nigeria and Africa regarding the contribution of obesity and hypertension to cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. This study investigates the prevalence of hypertension and obesity and their association with HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study in a rural tertiary health center in Nigeria. The data collected included demographic variables, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), monthly income, educational attainment, HIV status and ART treatment, duration of treatment, and CD4 T-lymphocyte count. RESULTS A total of 403 participants met the inclusion criteria. There were 153 (38.0%) HIV-negative subjects (42.5% male, 57.5% female; mean age: 35.5 ± 7.6 years), 120 (29.8%) HIV-positive drug-naïve subjects (42.5% male, 57.5% female; mean age: 36.5 ± 9.1 years), and 130 (32.2%) HIV-positive subjects taking antiretroviral drugs (33.1% male, 66.9% female; mean age: 38.6 ± 8.0 years). The prevalence of hypertension was 13.7% in HIV-negative subjects, 19.0% in HIV-positive drug-naïve subjects, and 12.3% in HIV-positive ART subjects. The prevalence of obesity was 15.9% in the HIV-negative group, 3% in the HIV-positive drug-naïve group, and 8% in the HIV-positive ART group. Multivariate regression analysis showed no relationship between hypertension and HIV status (P=0.293) or ART status (P=0.587). In contrast, BMI showed a strong relationship with HIV status (odds ratio: 0.281; 95% confidence interval: 0.089-0.884; P=0.030) but not with ART status (P=0.593). BMI was a significant predictor of hypertension. CONCLUSION HIV or ART status was not associated with hypertension. HIV infection was associated with a lower BMI, and a lower prevalence of obesity compared with HIV-negative subjects.