Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

@article{Chowdhury2014AssociationOD,
  title={Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.},
  author={Rajiv Chowdhury and Samantha Warnakula and Setor K. Kunutsor and Francesca L Crowe and Heather A Ward and Laura Johnson and Oscar H. Franco and Adam S. Butterworth and Nita G. Forouhi and Simon G Thompson and Kay-Tee Khaw and Dariush Mozaffarian and John Danesh and Emanuele Di Angelantonio},
  journal={Annals of internal medicine},
  year={2014},
  volume={160 6},
  pages={
          398-406
        }
}
BACKGROUND Guidelines advocate changes in fatty acid consumption to promote cardiovascular health. [] Key MethodDATA SOURCES MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through July 2013. STUDY SELECTION Prospective, observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. DATA EXTRACTION Investigators extracted data about study characteristics and assessed study biases.
Biomarkers of dairy fat intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta analysis of prospective studies
TLDR
Higher dairy fat exposure is not associated with an increased risk of CVD and Null association was observed between circulating 17:0 and trans-16:1n-7 level and subtypes of CVC except for only one study which reported a negative relationship between 17: 0 and heart failure.
Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk
TLDR
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature aimed a priori to quantify 3 aspects of the evidence on fatty acids and CHD, finding essentially null associations of SFA, MUFA, and -6 PUFAs with CHD and some evidence that circulating levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid were each associated with lower coronary risk.
Saturated fatty acids and coronary heart disease risk: the debate goes on
TLDR
The link between SFA intake, plasma cholesterol, and CHD risk is based on a broad range of evidence including mechanistic studies, RCTs of surrogate end points and clinical outcomes, as well as multinational population comparisons.
Dietary intake and biomarkers of linoleic acid and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
TLDR
In prospective cohort studies, higher LA intake, assessed by dietary surveys or biomarkers, was associated with a modestly lower risk of mortality from all causes, CVD, and cancer, and these data support the potential long-term benefits of PUFA intake in lowering the risk of CVD and premature death.
Dietary Linoleic Acid and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
TLDR
In prospective observational studies, dietary LA intake is inversely associated with CHD risk in a dose–response manner, providing support for current recommendations to replace saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat for primary prevention of CHD.
Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
TLDR
Saturated fats are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogeneous with methodological limitations, and Dietary guidelines must carefully consider the health effects of recommendations for alternative macronutrients to replace trans fats and saturated fats.
Is Butter Back? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Butter Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Total Mortality
TLDR
These findings do not support a need for major emphasis in dietary guidelines on either increasing or decreasing butter consumption, in comparison to other better established dietary priorities; while also highlighting the need for additional investigation of health and metabolic effects of butter and dairy fat.
Evidence from prospective cohort studies does not support current dietary fat guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis
TLDR
Empirical evidence to date found no significant difference in CHD mortality and total fat or saturated fat intake and thus does not support the present dietary fat guidelines, and the evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines.
Omega-6 fatty acids and the risk of cardiovascular disease: insights from a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and a Mendelian randomization study
TLDR
Omega-6 PUFA supplementation did not affect the risk for CVD morbidity and mortality, but it was found that higher AA levels might even significantly increase the risk of CHD, MI and large artery stroke, as well as the levels of FBG and LDL-C, whereas they were negatively associated with TC and TG.
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References

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Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk
TLDR
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature aimed a priori to quantify 3 aspects of the evidence on fatty acids and CHD, finding essentially null associations of SFA, MUFA, and -6 PUFAs with CHD and some evidence that circulating levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid were each associated with lower coronary risk.
Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease.
TLDR
A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD, and whether CVD risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat.
Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
TLDR
Overall, omega-3 PUFA supplementation was not associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, cardiac death, sudden death, myocardial infarction, or stroke based on relative and absolute measures of association.
The use of fatty acid biomarkers to reflect dietary intake
TLDR
The usefulness and limitations of fatty acid biomarkers in clinical and epidemiological studies are summarized and whole blood as an alternative choice to measure fatty acid intake in Epidemiological studies is explored.
Dietary Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Are Protective Against Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors
TLDR
A critical assessment of the current body of evidence surrounding efficacy of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) for reduction of traditional risk factors defining metabolic syndrome (MetS) and CVD is provided.
Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis
TLDR
Advice to substitute polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats is a key component of worldwide dietary guidelines for coronary heart disease risk reduction, however, clinical benefits of the most abundant polyuns saturated fatty acid, omega 6 linoleic acid, have not been established.
Circulating Long-Chain ω-3 Fatty Acids and Incidence of Congestive Heart Failure in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study
TLDR
Circulating individual and total ω-3 fatty acid concentrations are associated with lower incidence of CHF in older adults, and these concentrations are inversely associated with incident CHF after multivariate adjustment.
Association of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, albumin, or leukocyte count with coronary heart disease: meta-analyses of prospective studies.
TLDR
The published results from these prospective studies are remarkably consistent for each factor, indicating moderate but highly statistically significant associations with CHD, even though mechanisms that might account for these associations are not clear.
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