Association of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphism and non-genetic factors with Graves' ophthalmopathy in European and Japanese populations.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE The development and severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) may result from a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphism and non-genetic factors (age, sex, cigarette smoking) with GO in two different… (More)

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