Association of Localized Hypersensitivity and In-Stent Neoatherosclerosis with the Very Late Drug-Eluting Stent Thrombosis

Abstract

BACKGROUND Localized hypersensitivity reaction, delayed arterial healing, and neoatherosclerosis inside the stent have been suggested as the underlying pathologic mechanisms of very late stent thrombosis (VLST) of drug-eluting stent (DES). The present study sought to explore the prevalence of inflammatory cell infiltrates and evidence for fragments of atherosclerotic plaques in the aspirated thrombi in patients with DES VLST. METHODS AND RESULTS From April 2004 to September 2012, 48 patients with stent thrombosis (ST) of DES underwent thrombus aspiration with retrieved material sufficient for the histopathologic analysis; early ST (EST, within 30 days): N = 17, late ST (LST, between 31 and 365 days): N = 7, and very late ST (VLST, >1 year): N = 24. Eosinophil fraction in the aspirated thrombi was significantly higher in patients with VLST (8.2±5.7%) as compared with those with EST (4.3±3.0%) and LST (5.5±3.8%) (P = 0.03). Eosinophil fraction in the aspirated thrombi was significantly higher in 12 VLST patients with angiographic peri-stent contrast staining (PSS) and/or incomplete stent apposition (ISA) by intravascular ultrasound than in 12 VLST patients without PSS or ISA (10.6±6.1% versus 5.8±4.1%, P = 0.03). Evidences for fragments of atherosclerotic plaques in the aspirated thrombi were observed only in 3 (13%) out of 24 patients with DES VLST. CONCLUSIONS Eosinophil fraction in the aspirated thrombi was significantly higher in patients with DES VLST as compared with those with EST and LST. Evidences for fragments of atherosclerotic plaques were relatively uncommon in patients with DES VLST.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113870

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@inproceedings{Yamaji2014AssociationOL, title={Association of Localized Hypersensitivity and In-Stent Neoatherosclerosis with the Very Late Drug-Eluting Stent Thrombosis}, author={Kyohei Yamaji and Shunsuke Kubo and Katsumi Inoue and Kazushige Kadota and Shoichi Kuramitsu and Shinichi Shirai and Kenji Ando and Masakiyo Nobuyoshi and Kazuaki Mitsudo and Takeshi Kimura}, booktitle={PloS one}, year={2014} }