Association of Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders and Loss of Family Income

@article{Montes2008AssociationOC,
  title={Association of Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders and Loss of Family Income},
  author={Guillermo Montes and Jill S. Halterman},
  journal={Pediatrics},
  year={2008},
  volume={121},
  pages={e821 - e826}
}
BACKGROUND. Parents of children with autism have significant out-of-pocket expenditures related to their child's care. The impact of having a child with autism on household income is not known. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to estimate the loss of household income associated with childhood autism using a nationally representative sample. METHODS. Parents of 11684 children enrolled in kindergarten to eighth grade were surveyed by the National Household Education Survey-After School… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Child Care Problems and Employment Among Families With Preschool-Aged Children With Autism in the United States
TLDR
The purpose of this work was to determine whether families of preschool-aged children with autism are more likely to report that child care arrangements affected employment compared with typically developing children and children at high risk for developmental problems.
Economic Burden of Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders
TLDR
The economic burden associated with ASD is substantial and can be measured across multiple sectors of the authors' society, particularly for school systems.
Financial and employment impact of intellectual disability on families of children with autism.
TLDR
Having ID in addition to ASD may be associated with greater negative impact on family financial and employment burden and it is important to tailor the clinical approach and sufficiently support families.
Employment and financial burden of families with preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders in urban China: results from a descriptive study
TLDR
Having a child with ASD and having a children with OD were both associated with increased odds of reporting that childcare greatly interfered with employment and decreased the odds of living in a higher-income household.
A comparison of family financial and employment impacts of fragile X syndrome, autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disability.
The Relationships Among Adaptive Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Their Family Support Networks, Parental Stress, and Parental Coping
TLDR
The adaptive behaviors of children with autism were negatively correlated with parental behaviors which focused on continuing to seek and use social support, self-respect, and emotional strength, while parents’ views of the support their family received were positively correlated with parent behaviors that concentrated on family adjustment, teamwork, and a positive meaning of the situation.
Effects of autism spectrum disorder on parental employment in the United States: evidence from the National Health Interview Survey
ABSTRACT Using results of the US National Health Interview Survey (US-NHIS) for the years 1998–2013 we investigated the impact of having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on parents’ work
State Medicaid spending and financial burden of families raising children with autism.
TLDR
There is a robust relationship between state Medicaid spending for children with disabilities and the financial burdens incurred by families raising children with autism.
The Cost of Autism Spectrum Disorders
TLDR
A delay in diagnosis was associated with an indirect increased financial burden to families, and a per symptom dollar value may assist in allocation of individualised funding amounts for interventions rather than a nominal amount allocated to all children below a certain age, regardless of symptom presentation.
Implications of Childhood Autism for Parental Employment and Earnings
TLDR
Families of children with ASD face significant economic burden given the substantial health care expenses associated with ASD, and the economic impact of having lower income in addition to these expenses is substantial.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 22 REFERENCES
Characteristics of School-Age Children with Autism
TLDR
A cross-sectional descriptive analysis of 9583 children (grades K-8) from the 2001 National Household Education Survey Before and After School Survey yielded a prevalence estimate of autism similar to other recent studies.
Psychological Functioning and Coping Among Mothers of Children With Autism: A Population-Based Study
TLDR
Mothers of children with autism showed remarkable strengths in the parent–child relationship, social support, and stability of the household in the context of high stress and poorer mental health.
Mental health in the United States: parental report of diagnosed autism in children aged 4-17 years--United States, 2003-2004.
TLDR
Estimates suggest that, as of 2003-2004, autism had been diagnosed in at least 300,000 U.S. children aged 4-17 years and were associated with reported social, emotional, and behavioral symptoms and specialized needs.
A Comparison of Health Care Utilization and Costs of Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Large Group-Model Health Plan
TLDR
The utilization and costs of health care are substantially higher for children with autistic spectrum disorders compared with children without autism spectrum disorders and research is needed to evaluate the impact of improvements in the management of children with autism Spectrum disorders on health care utilization and cost.
Health Care Utilization and Expenditures for Children with Autism: Data from U.S. National Samples
TLDR
Children with ASD had more outpatient visits, physician visits, and medications prescribed than children in general, and spent more time during physician visits than other children.
Measuring the Parental, Service and Cost Impacts of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study
TLDR
Results from this small pilot study point to considerable economic burden for parents and give some indication of the associated costs of autistic spectrum disorder.
Health services use and health care expenditures for children with disabilities.
TLDR
The findings demonstrate that the 7.3% of US children with disabilities used many more services than their counterparts without disabilities in 1999-2000, and the skewed distribution of out-of-pocket expenses indicates that the financial burden of childhood disability continues to be shared unevenly by families.
Work-family fit: voices of parents of children with emotional and behavioral disorders.
TLDR
Results revealed that parents experience a serious lack of community-based services and resources necessary to support work and family obligations in a meaningful way and suggest a need for more research and services development to support these families in their communities.
Family responses to young children with developmental delays: accommodation activity in ecological and cultural context.
In this study 680 accommodations or proactive efforts to sustain a family environment in 10 ecocultural domains were reliably scored for 102 Euro-American families of young children with
Managing work‐family diversity for parents of disabled children – Beyond policy to practice and partnership
TLDR
The article highlights the need for diversity initiatives to look beyond the workplace and incorporate aspects of the wider context in which organisations operate, and argues that, while many of the parents experience problems establishing a work‐home balance, these are partly caused by blocks within the wider community.
...
...