Association of ADHD and Celiac Disease: What Is the Evidence? A Systematic Review of the Literature

  title={Association of ADHD and Celiac Disease: What Is the Evidence? A Systematic Review of the Literature},
  author={Emine Yurdakul Ert{\"u}rk and Sara Wouters and Lindita Imeraj and Annik Lampo},
  journal={Journal of Attention Disorders},
  pages={1371 - 1376}
Objective: This article tries to answer the question whether or not there is evidence for a relationship between celiac disease (CD) and ADHD. A review of the current literature on this topic is provided. Method: PUBMED/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google scholar were searched to include all published trials on ADHD and CD (no date limitation, both noncontrolled and controlled trials). In addition, the reference list of included studies was screened to find other relevant articles. Results… 

Prevalence of Celiac Disease Is Not Increased in ADHD Sample

It is concluded that there are not enough data to support screening for CD and the introduction of a gluten-free diet in children with ADHD unless there are additional indications.

Is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder increased in patients with celiac disease?

The findings of the study showed that the frequency of ADHD in males was 6 cases and 6 cases in females, and although the ADHD score was higher in males, there was no significant difference in sex.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and gastrointestinal morbidity in a large cohort of young adults

BACKGROUND Although the association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with psychiatric disorders is well known, its association with somatic diseases is unclear. Only few studies

Comorbidities in Childhood Celiac Disease: A Phenome Wide Association Study Using the Electronic Health Record

This is the first PheWAS of CD to confirm a significant association of eosinophilic disorders of the esophagus with CD in a controlled study and validate associations at the population level.

Gluten Intolerance and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Is Nitric Oxide the Common Biomarker Linking These Conditions?

  • K. Fluegge
  • Biology
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
  • 2016
The purpose of this correspondence is to highlight this biochemical connection between celiac disease and ADHD/ASD so as to identify the clinical populations who may realize the greatest benefit of these dietary approaches, while minimizing any potential risk of nutrient deficiencies.

Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms respond to gluten-free diet in patients with coeliac disease

Prior to treatment, coeliac disease patients reported significantly more symptoms than healthy controls on ASRS and HADS, and the differences disappeared after a minimum of 12 months on a gluten-free diet.

Association of Food Allergy, Respiratory Allergy, and Skin Allergy with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children

In a nationally representative sample of US children, a significant association of common allergic conditions (food allergy, respiratory allergy, and skin allergy) with ADHD was found.

Coeliac disease and psychiatric comorbidity: epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, quality-of-life, and gluten-free diet effects

This review summarizes the epidemiological studies that underline the connection between nutritional deficiencies, immune responses, interference in brain processes, and dysfunctions in the gut–brain axis in Coeliac Disease, and focuses on the potential mechanisms related to this comorbility.

Dietary and Micronutrient Treatments for Children with Neurodevelopment Disorders

There is reasonably robust evidence for the use of some dietary and nutritional approaches such as reduction of food dyes and supplementing with essential fatty acids and broad spectrum micronutrients.



Iron and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: what is the empirical evidence so far? A systematic review of the literature

How the field could move from initial research mainly focused on serum ferritin towards a more comprehensive and translational investigation of iron in ADHD is discussed, with the potential to inform clinical practice in terms of screening and treating iron deficiency in individuals with ADHD.

A Preliminary Investigation of ADHD Symptoms in Persons With Celiac Disease

It is suggested that a gluten-free diet may improve symptoms significantly within a short period of time and that CD should be included in the list of diseases associated with ADHD-like symptomatology.

Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and celiac disease: a brief report.

  • H. Niederhofer
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The primary care companion for CNS disorders
  • 2011
A gluten-free diet significantly improved ADHD symptoms in patients with celiac disease in this study, and the results suggest that Celiac disease should be included in the ADHD symptom checklist.

The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis.

The findings suggest that geographic location plays a limited role in the reasons for the large variability of ADHD/HD prevalence estimates worldwide and that this variability seems to be explained primarily by the methodological characteristics of studies.

Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments.

Better evidence for efficacy from blinded assessments is required for behavioral interventions, neurofeedback, cognitive training, and restricted elimination diets before they can be supported as treatments for core ADHD symptoms.

Frequency of Celiac Disease in Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Neither routine screening for CD nor empirical recommendation of gluten-free diet seems necessary in children with ADHD, and the seropositivity rates for CD were found similar in ADHD and control groups.

The Diet Factor in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

A greater attention to the education of parents and children in a healthy dietary pattern, omitting items shown to predispose to ADHD, is perhaps the most promising and practical complementary or alternative treatment of ADHD.

The neurobiology and genetics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): what every clinician should know.

  • S. Cortese
  • Psychology, Biology
    European journal of paediatric neurology : EJPN : official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society
  • 2012

Range of neurologic disorders in patients with celiac disease.

It is suggested that the variability of neurologic disorders that occur in CD is broader than previously reported and includes "softer" and more common Neurologic disorders, such as chronic headache, developmental delay, hypotonia, and learning disorders or ADHD.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology.

In this report, we provide an evidence-based overview of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including diagnosis, prevalence, developmental expression of symptoms, persistence, the