In the present cross-sectional study, we examined physical activity (PA) and its possible association with cognitive skills and brain structure in 331 cognitively healthy elderly. Based on the number of self-reported light and hard activities for at least 30 minutes per week, participants were assigned to 4 groups representing different levels of PA. The… (More)
Fig. 1. Subject inclusionary criteria and sa mple sizes. Initially, 1016 individuals (509 females) were examined at the age of 70 years. From these individuals, 409 agreed to participate in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) whole brain scan at the age of 75 years. To ensure a cognitively healthy population, those with a history of dementia or stroke, those with a body mass index (BMI) 3 standard deviations, those with pathological lesions on MRI (including arachnoidal cyst, bilateral hygromas, meningiomas, and schwannoma), those whose physical activity data were missing, and those who scored less than 27 on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to control for mild cognitive impairment were excluded. Furthermore, we examined each individual’s MRI scan, and we excluded 1 that was affected by movement artifacts. Thus, 331 elderly men and women were considered eligible to analyze the association between the self-reported physical activity, cognitive functions, and gray matter volume at the age of 75 years.