BACKGROUND Dyslipidemia and residual renal function (RRF) have a significant impact on the cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients, but their association in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) has not been completely studied. METHODS 170 PD patients were divided into 2 groups based on the RRF (Group I had no RRF and Group II had RRF >0 ml/min/1.73 m2 BSA). An observational, longitudinal study was performed to elucidate the dyslipidemic state in PD patients with different levels of RRF and the association of dyslipidemia and deterioration of RRF during 3 years. RESULTS Patients' basic characteristics and lipid profiles at the initiation of study were similar between the groups. At the end of study, Group I patients had a lower T-CHO (p=0.001), LDL-C (p=0.018), HDL-C (p=0.05) and non-HDL-C (p=0.003) than Group II. There was a significant correlation between a change in HDL-C and the decline of RRF (r=0.177, p=0.048) and it was independent of PD duration and levels of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.233, p=0.04). CONCLUSION Our results clearly demonstrate the different longitudinal changes of lipid profiles in PD patients with different RRF and an association between decline of HDL-C and deterioration of RRF.